Increased lung permeability following long-term use of free-base cocaine (crack)

H. Susskind, D. A. Weber, N. D. Volkow, Robert Hitzemann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The clearance of inhaled 99mTc DTPA aerosol from the lungs is used as an index of lung epithelial permeability. Using the radioaerosol method, we investigated the effects of long-term 'crack' (free-base cocaine) inhalation on lung permeability in 23 subjects. Eighteen control subjects (12 nonsmokers and 6 cigarette smokers) with no history of drug use were also studied. Subjects inhaled ~150 μCi (~5.6 MBq) of 99mTc DTPA aerosol and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 minutes. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected to include the following: (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc DTPA lung clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROIs. Radioaerosol clearance half-times (T( 1/2 )) for the seven nonsmoking crack users (61.5±18.3 minutes) were longer than for the seven cigarette-smoking crack users (27.9±16.9 minutes) and nine cigarette-smoking crack plus marijuana users (33.5±21.6 minutes). T( 1/2 ) for the nonsmoking crack users was significantly shorter (p99mTc DTPA clearances, indicative of greater lung injury than found in the usual cases of monoexponential clearance. The upper lungs of all crack user groups cleared faster than the lower lungs. The faster and biexponential clearance properties of inhaled 99mTc DTPA aerosol were the principal functional abnormalities found in all the drug users. In contrast, 19 of 23 crack users had normal spirometry and gas exchange. These results indicate that 99mTc DTPA may provide a sensitive and useful assay to evaluate the physiologic effects of cocaine inhalation in the lung.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)903-909
Number of pages7
JournalChest
Volume100
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Crack Cocaine
Permeability
Pentetic Acid
Lung
Aerosols
Cocaine
Inhalation
Smoking
Gamma Cameras
Spirometry
Lung Injury
Cannabis
Drug Users
Tobacco Products

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

Susskind, H., Weber, D. A., Volkow, N. D., & Hitzemann, R. (1991). Increased lung permeability following long-term use of free-base cocaine (crack). Chest, 100(4), 903-909.

Increased lung permeability following long-term use of free-base cocaine (crack). / Susskind, H.; Weber, D. A.; Volkow, N. D.; Hitzemann, Robert.

In: Chest, Vol. 100, No. 4, 1991, p. 903-909.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Susskind, H, Weber, DA, Volkow, ND & Hitzemann, R 1991, 'Increased lung permeability following long-term use of free-base cocaine (crack)', Chest, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 903-909.
Susskind, H. ; Weber, D. A. ; Volkow, N. D. ; Hitzemann, Robert. / Increased lung permeability following long-term use of free-base cocaine (crack). In: Chest. 1991 ; Vol. 100, No. 4. pp. 903-909.
@article{6a03ef4d84504ec48d8c27db1a079ab0,
title = "Increased lung permeability following long-term use of free-base cocaine (crack)",
abstract = "The clearance of inhaled 99mTc DTPA aerosol from the lungs is used as an index of lung epithelial permeability. Using the radioaerosol method, we investigated the effects of long-term 'crack' (free-base cocaine) inhalation on lung permeability in 23 subjects. Eighteen control subjects (12 nonsmokers and 6 cigarette smokers) with no history of drug use were also studied. Subjects inhaled ~150 μCi (~5.6 MBq) of 99mTc DTPA aerosol and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 minutes. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected to include the following: (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc DTPA lung clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROIs. Radioaerosol clearance half-times (T( 1/2 )) for the seven nonsmoking crack users (61.5±18.3 minutes) were longer than for the seven cigarette-smoking crack users (27.9±16.9 minutes) and nine cigarette-smoking crack plus marijuana users (33.5±21.6 minutes). T( 1/2 ) for the nonsmoking crack users was significantly shorter (p99mTc DTPA clearances, indicative of greater lung injury than found in the usual cases of monoexponential clearance. The upper lungs of all crack user groups cleared faster than the lower lungs. The faster and biexponential clearance properties of inhaled 99mTc DTPA aerosol were the principal functional abnormalities found in all the drug users. In contrast, 19 of 23 crack users had normal spirometry and gas exchange. These results indicate that 99mTc DTPA may provide a sensitive and useful assay to evaluate the physiologic effects of cocaine inhalation in the lung.",
author = "H. Susskind and Weber, {D. A.} and Volkow, {N. D.} and Robert Hitzemann",
year = "1991",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "100",
pages = "903--909",
journal = "Chest",
issn = "0012-3692",
publisher = "American College of Chest Physicians",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Increased lung permeability following long-term use of free-base cocaine (crack)

AU - Susskind, H.

AU - Weber, D. A.

AU - Volkow, N. D.

AU - Hitzemann, Robert

PY - 1991

Y1 - 1991

N2 - The clearance of inhaled 99mTc DTPA aerosol from the lungs is used as an index of lung epithelial permeability. Using the radioaerosol method, we investigated the effects of long-term 'crack' (free-base cocaine) inhalation on lung permeability in 23 subjects. Eighteen control subjects (12 nonsmokers and 6 cigarette smokers) with no history of drug use were also studied. Subjects inhaled ~150 μCi (~5.6 MBq) of 99mTc DTPA aerosol and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 minutes. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected to include the following: (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc DTPA lung clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROIs. Radioaerosol clearance half-times (T( 1/2 )) for the seven nonsmoking crack users (61.5±18.3 minutes) were longer than for the seven cigarette-smoking crack users (27.9±16.9 minutes) and nine cigarette-smoking crack plus marijuana users (33.5±21.6 minutes). T( 1/2 ) for the nonsmoking crack users was significantly shorter (p99mTc DTPA clearances, indicative of greater lung injury than found in the usual cases of monoexponential clearance. The upper lungs of all crack user groups cleared faster than the lower lungs. The faster and biexponential clearance properties of inhaled 99mTc DTPA aerosol were the principal functional abnormalities found in all the drug users. In contrast, 19 of 23 crack users had normal spirometry and gas exchange. These results indicate that 99mTc DTPA may provide a sensitive and useful assay to evaluate the physiologic effects of cocaine inhalation in the lung.

AB - The clearance of inhaled 99mTc DTPA aerosol from the lungs is used as an index of lung epithelial permeability. Using the radioaerosol method, we investigated the effects of long-term 'crack' (free-base cocaine) inhalation on lung permeability in 23 subjects. Eighteen control subjects (12 nonsmokers and 6 cigarette smokers) with no history of drug use were also studied. Subjects inhaled ~150 μCi (~5.6 MBq) of 99mTc DTPA aerosol and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 minutes. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected to include the following: (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc DTPA lung clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROIs. Radioaerosol clearance half-times (T( 1/2 )) for the seven nonsmoking crack users (61.5±18.3 minutes) were longer than for the seven cigarette-smoking crack users (27.9±16.9 minutes) and nine cigarette-smoking crack plus marijuana users (33.5±21.6 minutes). T( 1/2 ) for the nonsmoking crack users was significantly shorter (p99mTc DTPA clearances, indicative of greater lung injury than found in the usual cases of monoexponential clearance. The upper lungs of all crack user groups cleared faster than the lower lungs. The faster and biexponential clearance properties of inhaled 99mTc DTPA aerosol were the principal functional abnormalities found in all the drug users. In contrast, 19 of 23 crack users had normal spirometry and gas exchange. These results indicate that 99mTc DTPA may provide a sensitive and useful assay to evaluate the physiologic effects of cocaine inhalation in the lung.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026051582&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026051582&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 1914604

AN - SCOPUS:0026051582

VL - 100

SP - 903

EP - 909

JO - Chest

JF - Chest

SN - 0012-3692

IS - 4

ER -