Incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy is associated with higher levels of residual HIV-1 viremia

Jonathan Z. Li, Sebastien Gallien, Heather Ribaudo, Andrea Heisey, David R. Bangsberg, Daniel R. Kuritzkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives:To evaluate the relationship between incomplete antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and levels of residual HIV-1 viremia. Design: Medication adherence and residual viremia less than 50 copies/ml were quantified in participants of a cohort of homeless and marginally housed individuals with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Participants had at least 6 months of virologic suppression of less than 50 copies/ml and were in the adherence monitoring cohort with monthly unannounced pill counts. Residual viremia was measured by the single-copy assay. Results: The median average ART adherence over the prior 1 and 2 months were 94% [interquartile range (IQR) 79-100%] and 93% (IQR 82-98%), respectively. Average ART adherence over the past 2 months was significantly associated with levels of residual HIV viremia (Spearman r=-0.25, P = 0.04). One-third of participants with 100% ART adherence over the past 2 months had detectable residual viremia. On multivariate regression analysis, ART adherence over the past 2 months, but not duration of virologic suppression, CD4 + T-cell count or or ART regimen, was significantly associated with levels of residual HIV viremia. Detectable residual viremia was associated with virologic failure (50 copies/ml) on univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (hazard ratio 2.08, P = 0.02). However, on multivariate analysis, only ART adherence was associated with risk of virologic failure. Conclusion: Incomplete ART adherence is associated with higher levels of residual HIV-1 viremia, but detectable residual viremia can be present despite 100% measured ART adherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-186
Number of pages6
JournalAIDS
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 14 2014

Keywords

  • HIV reservoir
  • Medication adherence
  • Residual viremia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases

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