Intracellular transport of proteins and organelles in neurons plays an essential role in nervous system development and maintenance. Axon outgrowth, synapse formation, and synapse function, among other physiological processes, require active transport of these cargos between the neuronal soma and axon terminals. Abnormalities in this axonal transport are associated with a number of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative. disorders, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Alzheimer disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite its importance for nervous system development and health, methods for visualizing axonal transport in an intact vertebrate have been lacking. Using the advantages of the zebrafish system, we have developed a straightforward approach to visualize axonal transport of various cargos and motor proteins in intact zebrafish embryos and larvae. Here, we describe this approach in detail and discuss how it can be applied to address questions related to cargo-specific transport regulation and its effects on axon morphology and function in the developing and mature nervous system.