Impact of harmonic imaging and transducer frequency on 'ventricular volume' measurements using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: Studies in an in vitro model

R. A. Rusk, Y. Mori, P. S. Mehwald, A. Kenny, David Sahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


Aims: Harmonic imaging has increased the yield of quantifiable scans in two-dimensional echocardiography. Although real-time three-dimensional echocardiography avoids geometric assumptions in volume analysis, accurate measurement can be limited by image quality. This study compared volumes from a balloon model mimicking the left ventricle, scanned with and without harmonic imaging, using real time three-dimensional echocardiography. Methods: Two balloons separated by ultrasound gel were suspended in a water bath. To mimic different chamber volumes, 12 volumes of water within the inner balloon (40-180 ml) were scanned using a 3.5 MHz probe at fundamental frequency and using a 2.5 MHz probe with and without harmonic imaging. Results: Scanning at 3.5 MHz, the long axis (B) scans did not significantly underestimate the balloon volume but the 'short axis' (C) scans did (mean difference from actual volumes - 0.7 ± 1.4 ml, P = 0.14 and -3.9 ± 1.2 ml, P

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-252
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Echocardiography
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2001



  • Echocardiography
  • Left ventricle
  • Ultrasonics
  • Volumes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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