Immunocytochemical methods for demonstrating canine distemper virus antigen in aldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

Michael K. Axthelm, Steven Krakowka

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    20 Scopus citations


    The effects of enzymatic digestion, sodium borohydride reduction, acids used in décalcification procedures and techniques for inactivation of endogenous peroxidase were sequentially evaluated for their effect on the immunoreactivity of canine distemper virus in aldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Enzyme digestion improved immunoreactivity while sodium borohydride reduced background staining. Paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde-fixed tissues required thioglycolic acid treatment prior to enzyme digestion and sodium borohydride reduction to obtain results comparable to results obtained in formalin-fixed tissues. Detailed protocols for indirect immunofluorescence and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex procedure are provided.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)215-229
    Number of pages15
    JournalJournal of Virological Methods
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - Jun 1986



    • aldehyde fixation
    • canine distemper virus
    • immunocytochemistry
    • immunofluorescence technique
    • immunoperoxidase
    • technique

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Virology

    Cite this