Identifying risk factors and patterns for early recurrence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: A multi-institutional study

Charlotte M. Heidsma, Diamantis I. Tsilimigras, Flavio Rocha, Daniel E. Abbott, Ryan Fields, George A. Poultsides, Clifford S. Cho, Alexandra G. Lopez-Aguiar, Zaheer Kanji, Alexander V. Fisher, Bradley A. Krasnick, Kamran Idrees, Eleftherios Makris, Megan Beems, Casper H.J. van Eijck, Elisabeth J.M.Nieveen van Dijkum, Shishir K. Maithel, Timothy M. Pawlik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Identifying patients at risk for early recurrence (ER) following resection for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) might help to tailor adjuvant therapies and surveillance intensity in the post-operative setting. Methods: Patients undergoing surgical resection for pNETs between 1998–2018 were identified using a multi-institutional database. Using a minimum p-value approach, optimal cut-off value of recurrence-free survival (RFS) was determined based on the difference in post-recurrence survival (PRS). Risk factors for early recurrence were identified. Results: Among 807 patients who underwent curative-intent resection for pNETs, the optimal length of RFS to define ER was identified at 18 months (lowest p-value of 0.019). Median RFS was 11.0 months (95% 8.5–12.60) among ER patients (n = 49) versus 41.0 months (95% CI: 35.0–45.9) among non-ER patients (n = 77). Median PRS was worse among ER patients compared with non-ER patients (42.6 months vs. 81.5 months, p = 0.04). On multivariable analysis, tumor size (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05–1.37, p = 0.007) and positive lymph nodes (OR: 4.69, 95% CI: 1.41–15.58, p = 0.01) were independently associated with ER. Conclusion: An evidence-based cut-off value for ER after surgery for pNET was defined at 18 months. These data emphasized the importance of close follow-up in the first two years after surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2242
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
  • Recurrence
  • Risk-factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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