Purpose: Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a devastating soft tissue sarcoma affecting predominantly young individuals. Tyrosine kinases (TK) and associated pathways are continuously activated in many malignancies, including EWS; these enzymes provide candidate therapeutic targets. Experimental Design: Two high-throughput screens (a siRNA library and a small-molecule inhibitor library) were performed in EWS cells to establish candidate targets. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) phosphorylation was assessed in EWS patients and cell lines. SYK was inhibited by a variety of genetic and pharmacological approaches, and SYK-regulated pathways were investigated by cDNA microarrays. The transcriptional regulation of MALAT1 was examined by ChIP-qPCR, luciferase reporter, and qRT-PCR assays. Results: SYK was identified as a candidate actionable target through both high-throughput screens. SYK was highly phosphorylated in the majority of EWS cells, and SYK inhibition by a variety of genetic and pharmacologic approaches markedly inhibited EWS cells both in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of SYK rescued the cytotoxicity triggered by SYK-depletion associated with the reactivation of both AKT and c-MYC. A long noncoding RNA, MALAT1, was identified to be dependent on SYK-mediated signaling. Moreover, c-MYC, a SYK-promoted gene, bound to the promoter of MALAT1 and transcriptionally activated MALAT1, which further promoted the proliferation of EWS cells. Conclusions: This study identifies a novel signaling involving SYK/c-MYC/MALAT1 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of EWS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research