Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 targets protein phosphatase 1α to the endoplasmic reticulum and promotes dephosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2

Matthew H. Brush, Douglas C. Weiser, Shirish Shenolikar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

276 Scopus citations

Abstract

The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein, GADD34, associates with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and promotes in vitro dephosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, (eIF-2α). In this report, we show that the expression of human GADD34 in cultured cells reversed eIF-2α phosphorylation induced by thapsigargin and tunicamycin, agents that promote protein unfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). GADD34 expression also reversed eIF-2α phosphorylation induced by okadaic acid but not that induced by another phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A (CA), which is a result consistent with PP1 being a component of the GADD34-assembled eIF-2α phosphatase. Structure-function studies identified a bipartite C-terminal domain in GADD34 that encompassed a canonical PP1-binding motif, KVRF, and a novel RARA sequence, both of which were required for PP1 binding. N-terminal deletions of GADD34 established that while PP1 binding was necessary, it was not sufficient to promote eIF-2α dephosphorylation in cells. Imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-GADD34 proteins showed that the N-terminal 180 residues directed the localization of GADD34 at the ER and that GADD34 targeted the α isoform of PP1 to the ER. These data provide new insights into the mode of action of GADD34 in assembling an ER-associated eIF-2α phosphatase that regulates protein translation in mammalian cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1292-1303
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular and cellular biology
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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