PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to analyze the natural history and phenotypic overlap of patients with microcephaly and a chorioretinopathy or familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) ocular phenotype caused by mutations in KIF11, TUBGCP4, or TUBGCP6. METHODS. Patients diagnosed with congenital microcephaly and chorioretinopathy or FEVR were included. Molecular investigations consisted of targeted genetic sequencing. Data from medical records, ophthalmologic examination and imaging, electroretinography, and visual fields were analyzed for systemic and ophthalmic features and evidence of posterior segment disease progression. RESULTS. Twelve patients from 9 families were included and had a median of 8 years of follow-up. Nine patients had KIF11 variants, two had heterozygous TUBGCP6 variants, and one had heterozygous variants in TUBGCP4. All patients had reduced visual function and multiple individuals and families showed features of both chorioretinopathy and FEVR. Progression of posterior segment disease was highly variable, with some degree of increased atrophy of the macula or peripheral retina or increased vitreoretinal traction observed in 9 of 12 patients. CONCLUSIONS. Microcephaly due to mutations in KIF11, TUBGCP4, or TUBGCP6 can be associated with retinal disease on a spectrum from chorioretinal atrophy to FEVR-like posterior segment changes. Visually significant disease progression can occur and patients should be monitored closely by a team experienced in ophthalmic genetics.
- Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience