Genetic architecture of HIV-1 genes circulating in north India & their functional implications

Ujjwal Neogi, Vikas Sood, Larence Ronsard, Jyotsna Singh, Sneh Lata, V. G. Ramachandran, S. Das, Ajay Wanchu, Akhil C. Banerjea

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

11 Scopus citations


This review presents data on genetic and functional analysis of some of the HIV-1 genes derived from HIV-1 infected individuals from north India (Delhi, Punjab and Chandigarh). We found evidence of novel B/C recombinants in HIV-1 LTR region showing relatedness to China/Mynmar with 3 copies of Nfκb sites; B/C/D mosaic genomes for HIV-1 Vpr and novel B/C Tat. We reported appearance of a complex recombinant form CRF_02AG of HIV-1 envelope sequences which is predominantly found in Central/Western Africa. Also one Indian HIV-1 envelope subtype C sequence suggested exclusive CXCR4 co-receptor usage. This extensive recombination, which is observed in about 10 per cent HIV-1 infected individuals in the Vpr genes, resulted in remarkably altered functions when compared with prototype subtype B Vpr. The Vpu C was found to be more potent in causing apoptosis when compared with Vpu B when analyzed for subG1 DNA content. The functional implications of these changes as well as in other genes of HIV-1 are discussed in detail with possible implications for subtype-specific pathogenesis highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)769-778
Number of pages10
JournalIndian Journal of Medical Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011



  • HIV-1 genetic variants
  • HIV-1 recombinants
  • HIV-1 subtypes
  • India

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Neogi, U., Sood, V., Ronsard, L., Singh, J., Lata, S., Ramachandran, V. G., Das, S., Wanchu, A., & Banerjea, A. C. (2011). Genetic architecture of HIV-1 genes circulating in north India & their functional implications. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 134(12), 769-778.