Follow-up of yoga of awareness for fibromyalgia: Results at 3 months and replication in the wait-list group

James W. Carson, Kimberly M. Carson, Kim D. Jones, Scott D. Mist, Robert M. Bennett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Objectives: Published preliminary findings from a randomized-controlled trial suggest that an 8-week Yoga of Awareness intervention may be effective for improving symptoms, functional deficits, and coping abilities in fibromyalgia. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the same intervention's posttreatment effects in a wait-list group and to test the intervention's effects at 3-month follow-up in the immediate treatment group. Methods: Unpaired t tests were used to compare data from a per protocol sample of 21 women in the immediate treatment group who had completed treatment and 18 women in the wait-list group who had completed treatment. Within-group paired t tests were performed to compare posttreatment data with 3-month follow-up data in the immediate treatment group. The primary outcome measure was the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQR). Multilevel random-effects models were also used to examine associations between yoga practice rates and outcomes. Results: Posttreatment results in the wait-list group largely mirrored results seen at posttreatment in the immediate treatment group, with the FIQR Total Score improving by 31.9% across the 2 groups. Follow-up results showed that patients sustained most of their posttreatment gains, with the FIQR Total Score remaining 21.9% improved at 3 months. Yoga practice rates were good, and more practice was associated with more benefit for a variety of outcomes. Discussion: These findings indicate that the benefits of Yoga of Awareness in fibromyalgia are replicable and can be maintained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)804-813
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Journal of Pain
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 2012


  • acceptance
  • fibromyalgia
  • mindfulness
  • pain
  • yoga

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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