Fatty acid biomarkers of dairy fat consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

InterAct Consortium, Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium (FORCE)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: We aimed to investigate prospective associations of circulating or adipose tissue odd-chain fatty acids 15:0 and 17:0 and trans-palmitoleic acid, t16:1n-7, as potential biomarkers of dairy fat intake, with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods and findings: Sixteen prospective cohorts from 12 countries (7 from the United States, 7 from Europe, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan) performed new harmonised individual-level analysis for the prospective associations according to a standardised plan. In total, 63,682 participants with a broad range of baseline ages and BMIs and 15,180 incident cases of T2D over the average of 9 years of follow-up were evaluated. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance–weighted meta-analysis. Prespecified interactions by age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity were explored in each cohort and were meta-analysed. Potential heterogeneity by cohort-specific characteristics (regions, lipid compartments used for fatty acid assays) was assessed with metaregression. After adjustment for potential confounders, including measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) and lipogenesis (levels of palmitate, triglycerides), higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with lower incidence of T2D. In the most adjusted model, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident T2D per cohort-specific 10th to 90th percentile range of 15:0 was 0.80 (0.73–0.87); of 17:0, 0.65 (0.59–0.72); of t16:1n7, 0.82 (0.70–0.96); and of their sum, 0.71 (0.63–0.79). In exploratory analyses, similar associations for 15:0, 17:0, and the sum of all three fatty acids were present in both genders but stronger in women than in men (p interaction < 0.001). Whereas studying associations with biomarkers has several advantages, as limitations, the biomarkers do not distinguish between different food sources of dairy fat (e.g., cheese, yogurt, milk), and residual confounding by unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders may exist. Conclusions: In a large meta-analysis that pooled the findings from 16 prospective cohort studies, higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with a lower risk of T2D.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1002670
JournalPLoS Medicine
Volume15
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Cohort Studies
Fatty Acids
Biomarkers
Fats
Prospective Studies
Incidence
Meta-Analysis
Yogurt
Lipogenesis
Palmitates
Adiposity
Cheese
Waist Circumference
Taiwan
Proportional Hazards Models
Adipose Tissue
Milk
Triglycerides
Lipids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Fatty acid biomarkers of dairy fat consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes : A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. / InterAct Consortium; Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium (FORCE).

In: PLoS Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 10, e1002670, 01.10.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

InterAct Consortium ; Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium (FORCE). / Fatty acid biomarkers of dairy fat consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes : A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. In: PLoS Medicine. 2018 ; Vol. 15, No. 10.
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abstract = "Background: We aimed to investigate prospective associations of circulating or adipose tissue odd-chain fatty acids 15:0 and 17:0 and trans-palmitoleic acid, t16:1n-7, as potential biomarkers of dairy fat intake, with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods and findings: Sixteen prospective cohorts from 12 countries (7 from the United States, 7 from Europe, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan) performed new harmonised individual-level analysis for the prospective associations according to a standardised plan. In total, 63,682 participants with a broad range of baseline ages and BMIs and 15,180 incident cases of T2D over the average of 9 years of follow-up were evaluated. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance–weighted meta-analysis. Prespecified interactions by age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity were explored in each cohort and were meta-analysed. Potential heterogeneity by cohort-specific characteristics (regions, lipid compartments used for fatty acid assays) was assessed with metaregression. After adjustment for potential confounders, including measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) and lipogenesis (levels of palmitate, triglycerides), higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with lower incidence of T2D. In the most adjusted model, the hazard ratio (95{\%} CI) for incident T2D per cohort-specific 10th to 90th percentile range of 15:0 was 0.80 (0.73–0.87); of 17:0, 0.65 (0.59–0.72); of t16:1n7, 0.82 (0.70–0.96); and of their sum, 0.71 (0.63–0.79). In exploratory analyses, similar associations for 15:0, 17:0, and the sum of all three fatty acids were present in both genders but stronger in women than in men (p interaction < 0.001). Whereas studying associations with biomarkers has several advantages, as limitations, the biomarkers do not distinguish between different food sources of dairy fat (e.g., cheese, yogurt, milk), and residual confounding by unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders may exist. Conclusions: In a large meta-analysis that pooled the findings from 16 prospective cohort studies, higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with a lower risk of T2D.",
author = "{InterAct Consortium} and {Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium (FORCE)} and Fumiaki Imamura and Amanda Fretts and Matti Marklund and {Ardisson Korat}, {Andres V.} and Yang, {Wei Sin} and Maria Lankinen and Waqas Qureshi and Catherine Helmer and Chen, {Tzu An} and Kerry Wong and Bassett, {Julie K.} and Rachel Murphy and Nathan Tintle and Yu, {Chaoyu Ian} and Brouwer, {Ingeborg A.} and Chien, {Kuo Liong} and Frazier-Wood, {Alexis C.} and {del Gobbo}, {Liana C.} and Luc Djouss{\'e} and Geleijnse, {Johanna M.} and Giles, {Graham G.} and {de Goede}, Janette and Vilmundur Gudnason and William Harris and Allison Hodge and Frank Hu and Albert Koulman and Markku Laakso and Lars Lind and Lin, {Hung Ju} and Barbara McKnight and Kalina Rajaobelina and Ulf Ris{\'e}rus and Robinson, {Jennifer G.} and C{\'e}cilia Samieri and Siscovick, {David S.} and Soedamah-Muthu, {Sabita S.} and Nona Sotoodehnia and Qi Sun and Tsai, {Michael Y.} and Matti Uusitupa and Wagenknecht, {Lynne E.} and Wareham, {Nick J.} and Wu, {Jason H.Y.} and Renata Micha and Forouhi, {Nita G.} and Lemaitre, {Rozenn N.} and Dariush Mozaffarian",
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T1 - Fatty acid biomarkers of dairy fat consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes

T2 - A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

AU - InterAct Consortium

AU - Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium (FORCE)

AU - Imamura, Fumiaki

AU - Fretts, Amanda

AU - Marklund, Matti

AU - Ardisson Korat, Andres V.

AU - Yang, Wei Sin

AU - Lankinen, Maria

AU - Qureshi, Waqas

AU - Helmer, Catherine

AU - Chen, Tzu An

AU - Wong, Kerry

AU - Bassett, Julie K.

AU - Murphy, Rachel

AU - Tintle, Nathan

AU - Yu, Chaoyu Ian

AU - Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

AU - Chien, Kuo Liong

AU - Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

AU - del Gobbo, Liana C.

AU - Djoussé, Luc

AU - Geleijnse, Johanna M.

AU - Giles, Graham G.

AU - de Goede, Janette

AU - Gudnason, Vilmundur

AU - Harris, William

AU - Hodge, Allison

AU - Hu, Frank

AU - Koulman, Albert

AU - Laakso, Markku

AU - Lind, Lars

AU - Lin, Hung Ju

AU - McKnight, Barbara

AU - Rajaobelina, Kalina

AU - Risérus, Ulf

AU - Robinson, Jennifer G.

AU - Samieri, Cécilia

AU - Siscovick, David S.

AU - Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

AU - Sotoodehnia, Nona

AU - Sun, Qi

AU - Tsai, Michael Y.

AU - Uusitupa, Matti

AU - Wagenknecht, Lynne E.

AU - Wareham, Nick J.

AU - Wu, Jason H.Y.

AU - Micha, Renata

AU - Forouhi, Nita G.

AU - Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush

PY - 2018/10/1

Y1 - 2018/10/1

N2 - Background: We aimed to investigate prospective associations of circulating or adipose tissue odd-chain fatty acids 15:0 and 17:0 and trans-palmitoleic acid, t16:1n-7, as potential biomarkers of dairy fat intake, with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods and findings: Sixteen prospective cohorts from 12 countries (7 from the United States, 7 from Europe, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan) performed new harmonised individual-level analysis for the prospective associations according to a standardised plan. In total, 63,682 participants with a broad range of baseline ages and BMIs and 15,180 incident cases of T2D over the average of 9 years of follow-up were evaluated. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance–weighted meta-analysis. Prespecified interactions by age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity were explored in each cohort and were meta-analysed. Potential heterogeneity by cohort-specific characteristics (regions, lipid compartments used for fatty acid assays) was assessed with metaregression. After adjustment for potential confounders, including measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) and lipogenesis (levels of palmitate, triglycerides), higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with lower incidence of T2D. In the most adjusted model, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident T2D per cohort-specific 10th to 90th percentile range of 15:0 was 0.80 (0.73–0.87); of 17:0, 0.65 (0.59–0.72); of t16:1n7, 0.82 (0.70–0.96); and of their sum, 0.71 (0.63–0.79). In exploratory analyses, similar associations for 15:0, 17:0, and the sum of all three fatty acids were present in both genders but stronger in women than in men (p interaction < 0.001). Whereas studying associations with biomarkers has several advantages, as limitations, the biomarkers do not distinguish between different food sources of dairy fat (e.g., cheese, yogurt, milk), and residual confounding by unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders may exist. Conclusions: In a large meta-analysis that pooled the findings from 16 prospective cohort studies, higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with a lower risk of T2D.

AB - Background: We aimed to investigate prospective associations of circulating or adipose tissue odd-chain fatty acids 15:0 and 17:0 and trans-palmitoleic acid, t16:1n-7, as potential biomarkers of dairy fat intake, with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods and findings: Sixteen prospective cohorts from 12 countries (7 from the United States, 7 from Europe, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan) performed new harmonised individual-level analysis for the prospective associations according to a standardised plan. In total, 63,682 participants with a broad range of baseline ages and BMIs and 15,180 incident cases of T2D over the average of 9 years of follow-up were evaluated. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance–weighted meta-analysis. Prespecified interactions by age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity were explored in each cohort and were meta-analysed. Potential heterogeneity by cohort-specific characteristics (regions, lipid compartments used for fatty acid assays) was assessed with metaregression. After adjustment for potential confounders, including measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) and lipogenesis (levels of palmitate, triglycerides), higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with lower incidence of T2D. In the most adjusted model, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident T2D per cohort-specific 10th to 90th percentile range of 15:0 was 0.80 (0.73–0.87); of 17:0, 0.65 (0.59–0.72); of t16:1n7, 0.82 (0.70–0.96); and of their sum, 0.71 (0.63–0.79). In exploratory analyses, similar associations for 15:0, 17:0, and the sum of all three fatty acids were present in both genders but stronger in women than in men (p interaction < 0.001). Whereas studying associations with biomarkers has several advantages, as limitations, the biomarkers do not distinguish between different food sources of dairy fat (e.g., cheese, yogurt, milk), and residual confounding by unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders may exist. Conclusions: In a large meta-analysis that pooled the findings from 16 prospective cohort studies, higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with a lower risk of T2D.

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