Expression of prokineticin 2 and its receptor in the macaque monkey brain

Katherine J. Burton, Xiaohan Li, Baoan Li, Michelle Y. Cheng, Henryk F. Urbanski, Qun Yong Zhou

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    10 Scopus citations


    Prokineticin 2 (PK2) has been indicated as an output signaling molecule for the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock. Most of these studies were performed with nocturnal animals, particularly mice and rats. In the current study, the PK2 and its receptor, PKR2, was cloned from a species of diurnal macaque monkey. The macaque monkey PK2 and PKR2 were found to be highly homologous to that of other mammalian species. The mRNA expression of PK2 and PKR2 in the macaque brain was examined by in situ hybridization. The expression patterns of PK2 and PKR2 in the macaque brain were found to be quite similar to that of the mouse brain. Particularly, PK2 mRNA was shown to oscillate in the SCN of the macaque brain in the same phase and with similar amplitude with that of nocturnal mouse brain. PKR2 expression was also detected in known primary SCN targets, including the midline thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. In addition, we detected the expression of PKR2 mRNA in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of both macaque and mouse brains. As a likely SCN to dorsal raphe projection has previously been indicated, the expression of PKR2 in the raphe nuclei of both macaque and mouse brain signifies a possible role of DR as a previously unrecognized primary SCN projection target.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)191-199
    Number of pages9
    JournalChronobiology International
    Issue number2
    StatePublished - Feb 7 2016


    • G proteincoupled receptor
    • Prokineticin 2
    • circadian clock
    • diurnal
    • monkey
    • suprachiasmatic nucleus

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Physiology
    • Physiology (medical)


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