Experimental Studies to Define the Geometry of the Flow Convergence Region: Laser Doppler Particle Tracking and Color Doppler Imaging


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39 Scopus citations


The color flow convergence method for calculating volume flow through regurgitant or forward flow restrictive orifices has gained significant interest and a number of in vitro studies have suggested that this method is accurate, even in pulsatile models. Clinical application of the method over a wide range of conditions will require improved understanding of the effect of orifice size, flow geometry, and flow rate on the flow convergence geometry. In this study, we performed laser particle tracking investigations to allow visualization of streamlines into stenotic orifices. These streamlines are theoretically perpendicular to the isovelocity surfaces used for flow convergence calculations. We compared those observations to color flow map, flow convergence images obtained with a Toshiba 160A for orifices 5 to 15 mm2 with flow rates of 1.5 to 9.7 L/min. Our results show that for large orifices, low flow rates, and/or low pressure gradients, more oblique streamlines in the velocity of the orifice correspond to nonhemispherical, but more elliptical, flow convergence geometries. This can be corrected for by using lower Nyquist limits and calculating flow convergence at greater distances from the orifice. Under high flow and high gradient conditions, increased Nyquist limits and shorter aliasing radii are more suitable. Our studies yield insights into flow convergence geometry and yield corrective procedures to improve volume flow calculation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-50
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1992


  • color flow Doppler
  • flow convergence
  • in vitro fluid dynamics
  • regurgitant flow rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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