Evaluation of bacteria-induced enamel demineralization using optical profilometry

Sarah E. Cross, Jens Kreth, R. Paul Wali, Richard Sullivan, Wenyuan Shi, James K. Gimzewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Streptococcus mutans is considered a major causative of tooth decay due to its ability to rapidly metabolize carbohydrates such as sucrose. One prominent excreted end product of sucrose metabolism is lactic acid. Lactic acid causes a decrease in the pH of the oral environment with subsequent demineralization of the tooth enamel. Biologically relevant bacteria-induced enamel demineralization was studied. Methods: Optical profiling was used to measure tooth enamel decay with vertical resolution under one nanometer and lateral features with optical resolution as a result of S. mutans biofilm exposure. Comparison measurements were made using AFM. Results: After 72 h of biofilm exposure the enamel displayed an 8-fold increase in the observed roughness average (Ra), as calculated over the entire measured array. Similarly, the average root mean square (RMS) roughness, RRMS, of the enamel before and after biofilm exposure for 3 days displayed a 7-fold increase. Further, the direct effect of chemically induced enamel demineralization using biologically relevant organic acids was shown. Optical profiles of the enamel surface after addition of a 30% lactic acid solution showed a significant alteration in the surface topography with a corresponding increase in respective surface roughness statistics. Similar measurements with 10% citric acid over seconds and minutes give insight into the demineralization process by providing quantitative measures for erosion rates: comparing surface height and roughness as metrics. Significance: The strengths of optical profilometry as an analytical tool for understanding and analyzing biologically relevant processes such as biofilm induced tooth enamel demineralization were demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1517-1526
Number of pages10
JournalDental Materials
Volume25
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Profilometry
Enamels
Dental Enamel
Tooth enamel
Biofilms
Bacteria
Lactic acid
Surface roughness
Lactic Acid
Tooth Demineralization
Sugar (sucrose)
Sucrose
Streptococcus mutans
Organic acids
Citric acid
Surface topography
Carbohydrates
Tooth
Metabolism
Citric Acid

Keywords

  • AFM
  • Biofilm
  • Citric acid
  • Enamel demineralization
  • Enamel erosion
  • Lactic acid
  • Optical profilometry
  • Streptococcus mutans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Evaluation of bacteria-induced enamel demineralization using optical profilometry. / Cross, Sarah E.; Kreth, Jens; Wali, R. Paul; Sullivan, Richard; Shi, Wenyuan; Gimzewski, James K.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 25, No. 12, 01.12.2009, p. 1517-1526.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cross, SE, Kreth, J, Wali, RP, Sullivan, R, Shi, W & Gimzewski, JK 2009, 'Evaluation of bacteria-induced enamel demineralization using optical profilometry', Dental Materials, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1517-1526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2009.07.012
Cross, Sarah E. ; Kreth, Jens ; Wali, R. Paul ; Sullivan, Richard ; Shi, Wenyuan ; Gimzewski, James K. / Evaluation of bacteria-induced enamel demineralization using optical profilometry. In: Dental Materials. 2009 ; Vol. 25, No. 12. pp. 1517-1526.
@article{a55275919e534893b733dd5dfb0f9d4d,
title = "Evaluation of bacteria-induced enamel demineralization using optical profilometry",
abstract = "Objectives: Streptococcus mutans is considered a major causative of tooth decay due to its ability to rapidly metabolize carbohydrates such as sucrose. One prominent excreted end product of sucrose metabolism is lactic acid. Lactic acid causes a decrease in the pH of the oral environment with subsequent demineralization of the tooth enamel. Biologically relevant bacteria-induced enamel demineralization was studied. Methods: Optical profiling was used to measure tooth enamel decay with vertical resolution under one nanometer and lateral features with optical resolution as a result of S. mutans biofilm exposure. Comparison measurements were made using AFM. Results: After 72 h of biofilm exposure the enamel displayed an 8-fold increase in the observed roughness average (Ra), as calculated over the entire measured array. Similarly, the average root mean square (RMS) roughness, RRMS, of the enamel before and after biofilm exposure for 3 days displayed a 7-fold increase. Further, the direct effect of chemically induced enamel demineralization using biologically relevant organic acids was shown. Optical profiles of the enamel surface after addition of a 30{\%} lactic acid solution showed a significant alteration in the surface topography with a corresponding increase in respective surface roughness statistics. Similar measurements with 10{\%} citric acid over seconds and minutes give insight into the demineralization process by providing quantitative measures for erosion rates: comparing surface height and roughness as metrics. Significance: The strengths of optical profilometry as an analytical tool for understanding and analyzing biologically relevant processes such as biofilm induced tooth enamel demineralization were demonstrated.",
keywords = "AFM, Biofilm, Citric acid, Enamel demineralization, Enamel erosion, Lactic acid, Optical profilometry, Streptococcus mutans",
author = "Cross, {Sarah E.} and Jens Kreth and Wali, {R. Paul} and Richard Sullivan and Wenyuan Shi and Gimzewski, {James K.}",
year = "2009",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.dental.2009.07.012",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "25",
pages = "1517--1526",
journal = "Dental Materials",
issn = "0109-5641",
publisher = "Elsevier Science",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation of bacteria-induced enamel demineralization using optical profilometry

AU - Cross, Sarah E.

AU - Kreth, Jens

AU - Wali, R. Paul

AU - Sullivan, Richard

AU - Shi, Wenyuan

AU - Gimzewski, James K.

PY - 2009/12/1

Y1 - 2009/12/1

N2 - Objectives: Streptococcus mutans is considered a major causative of tooth decay due to its ability to rapidly metabolize carbohydrates such as sucrose. One prominent excreted end product of sucrose metabolism is lactic acid. Lactic acid causes a decrease in the pH of the oral environment with subsequent demineralization of the tooth enamel. Biologically relevant bacteria-induced enamel demineralization was studied. Methods: Optical profiling was used to measure tooth enamel decay with vertical resolution under one nanometer and lateral features with optical resolution as a result of S. mutans biofilm exposure. Comparison measurements were made using AFM. Results: After 72 h of biofilm exposure the enamel displayed an 8-fold increase in the observed roughness average (Ra), as calculated over the entire measured array. Similarly, the average root mean square (RMS) roughness, RRMS, of the enamel before and after biofilm exposure for 3 days displayed a 7-fold increase. Further, the direct effect of chemically induced enamel demineralization using biologically relevant organic acids was shown. Optical profiles of the enamel surface after addition of a 30% lactic acid solution showed a significant alteration in the surface topography with a corresponding increase in respective surface roughness statistics. Similar measurements with 10% citric acid over seconds and minutes give insight into the demineralization process by providing quantitative measures for erosion rates: comparing surface height and roughness as metrics. Significance: The strengths of optical profilometry as an analytical tool for understanding and analyzing biologically relevant processes such as biofilm induced tooth enamel demineralization were demonstrated.

AB - Objectives: Streptococcus mutans is considered a major causative of tooth decay due to its ability to rapidly metabolize carbohydrates such as sucrose. One prominent excreted end product of sucrose metabolism is lactic acid. Lactic acid causes a decrease in the pH of the oral environment with subsequent demineralization of the tooth enamel. Biologically relevant bacteria-induced enamel demineralization was studied. Methods: Optical profiling was used to measure tooth enamel decay with vertical resolution under one nanometer and lateral features with optical resolution as a result of S. mutans biofilm exposure. Comparison measurements were made using AFM. Results: After 72 h of biofilm exposure the enamel displayed an 8-fold increase in the observed roughness average (Ra), as calculated over the entire measured array. Similarly, the average root mean square (RMS) roughness, RRMS, of the enamel before and after biofilm exposure for 3 days displayed a 7-fold increase. Further, the direct effect of chemically induced enamel demineralization using biologically relevant organic acids was shown. Optical profiles of the enamel surface after addition of a 30% lactic acid solution showed a significant alteration in the surface topography with a corresponding increase in respective surface roughness statistics. Similar measurements with 10% citric acid over seconds and minutes give insight into the demineralization process by providing quantitative measures for erosion rates: comparing surface height and roughness as metrics. Significance: The strengths of optical profilometry as an analytical tool for understanding and analyzing biologically relevant processes such as biofilm induced tooth enamel demineralization were demonstrated.

KW - AFM

KW - Biofilm

KW - Citric acid

KW - Enamel demineralization

KW - Enamel erosion

KW - Lactic acid

KW - Optical profilometry

KW - Streptococcus mutans

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70350571357&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70350571357&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.dental.2009.07.012

DO - 10.1016/j.dental.2009.07.012

M3 - Article

C2 - 19732947

AN - SCOPUS:70350571357

VL - 25

SP - 1517

EP - 1526

JO - Dental Materials

JF - Dental Materials

SN - 0109-5641

IS - 12

ER -