Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology will usher in profound changes to the practice of medicine. BCI devices, broadly defined as those capable of reading brain activity and translating this into operation of a device, will offer patients and clinicians new ways to address impairments of communication, movement, sensation, and mental health. These new capabilities will bring new responsibilities and raise a diverse set of ethical challenges. One way to understand and begin to address these challenges is to view them in terms of the goals of medicine. In this chapter, different ways in which BCI technology may subserve the goals of medicine is explored. This is followed by articulation of additional goals particularly relevant to BCI technology: neural diversity, neural privacy, agency, and authenticity. The goals of medicine provide a useful ethical framework for the introduction of BCI devices into medicine.