Identifying precise molecular subtypes attributable to specific stages of localized prostate cancer has proven difficult due to high levels of heterogeneity. Bulk assays represent a population-average, which mask the heterogeneity that exists at the single-cell level. In this work, we sequence the accessible chromatin regions of 14,424 single-cells from 18 flash-frozen prostate tumours. We observe shared chromatin features among low-grade prostate cancer cells are lost in high-grade tumours. Despite this loss, high-grade tumours exhibit an enrichment for FOXA1, HOXB13 and CDX2 transcription factor binding sites, indicating a shared trans-regulatory programme. We identify two unique genes encoding neuronal adhesion molecules that are highly accessible in high-grade prostate tumours. We show NRXN1 and NLGN1 expression in epithelial, endothelial, immune and neuronal cells in prostate cancer using cyclic immunofluorescence. Our results provide a deeper understanding of the active gene regulatory networks in primary prostate tumours, critical for molecular stratification of the disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)