Early Optic Nerve Head Glial Proliferation and Jak-Stat Pathway Activation in Chronic Experimental Glaucoma

Diana C. Lozano, Tiffany E. Choe, William O. Cepurna, John Morrison, Elaine Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: We previously reported increased expression of cell proliferation and Jak-Stat pathway-related genes in chronic experimental glaucoma model optic nerve heads (ONH) with early, mild injury. Here, we confirm these observations by localizing, identifying, and quantifying ONH cellular proliferation and Jak-Stat pathway activation in this model. Methods: Chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was achieved via outflow pathway sclerosis. After 5 weeks, ONH longitudinal sections were immunolabeled with proliferation and cell-type markers to determine nuclear densities in the anterior (unmyelinated) and transition (partially myelinated) ONH. Nuclear pStat3 labeling was used to detect Jak-Stat pathway activation. Nuclear density differences between control ONH (uninjected) and ONH with either early or advanced injury (determined by optic nerve injury grading) were identified by ANOVA. Results: Advanced injury ONH had twice the nuclear density (P < 0.0001) of controls and significantly greater astrocyte density in anterior (P = 0.0001) and transition (P = 0.006) ONH regions. An increased optic nerve injury grade positively correlated with increased microglia/macrophage density in anterior and transition ONH (P < 0.0001, both). Oligodendroglial density was unaffected. In glaucoma model ONH, 80% of anterior and 66% of transition region proliferating cells were astrocytes. Nuclear pStat3 labeling significantly increased in early injury anterior ONH, and 95% colocalized with astrocytes. Conclusions: Astrocytes account for the majority of proliferating cells, contributing to a doubled nuclear density in advanced injury ONH. Jak-Stat pathway activation is apparent in the early injury glaucoma model ONH. These data confirm dramatic astrocyte cell proliferation and early Jak-Stat pathway activation in ONH injured by elevated IOP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)921-932
Number of pages12
JournalInvestigative ophthalmology & visual science
Volume60
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

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Optic Disk
Neuroglia
Glaucoma
Astrocytes
Wounds and Injuries
Cell Proliferation
Optic Nerve Injuries
Intraocular Pressure
Microglia
Sclerosis
Analysis of Variance
Theoretical Models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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Early Optic Nerve Head Glial Proliferation and Jak-Stat Pathway Activation in Chronic Experimental Glaucoma. / Lozano, Diana C.; Choe, Tiffany E.; Cepurna, William O.; Morrison, John; Johnson, Elaine.

In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Vol. 60, No. 4, 01.03.2019, p. 921-932.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Purpose: We previously reported increased expression of cell proliferation and Jak-Stat pathway-related genes in chronic experimental glaucoma model optic nerve heads (ONH) with early, mild injury. Here, we confirm these observations by localizing, identifying, and quantifying ONH cellular proliferation and Jak-Stat pathway activation in this model. Methods: Chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was achieved via outflow pathway sclerosis. After 5 weeks, ONH longitudinal sections were immunolabeled with proliferation and cell-type markers to determine nuclear densities in the anterior (unmyelinated) and transition (partially myelinated) ONH. Nuclear pStat3 labeling was used to detect Jak-Stat pathway activation. Nuclear density differences between control ONH (uninjected) and ONH with either early or advanced injury (determined by optic nerve injury grading) were identified by ANOVA. Results: Advanced injury ONH had twice the nuclear density (P < 0.0001) of controls and significantly greater astrocyte density in anterior (P = 0.0001) and transition (P = 0.006) ONH regions. An increased optic nerve injury grade positively correlated with increased microglia/macrophage density in anterior and transition ONH (P < 0.0001, both). Oligodendroglial density was unaffected. In glaucoma model ONH, 80% of anterior and 66% of transition region proliferating cells were astrocytes. Nuclear pStat3 labeling significantly increased in early injury anterior ONH, and 95% colocalized with astrocytes. Conclusions: Astrocytes account for the majority of proliferating cells, contributing to a doubled nuclear density in advanced injury ONH. Jak-Stat pathway activation is apparent in the early injury glaucoma model ONH. These data confirm dramatic astrocyte cell proliferation and early Jak-Stat pathway activation in ONH injured by elevated IOP.

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