Dynein is the motor for retrograde axonal transport of organelles

Bruce Schnapp, T. S. Reese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

230 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vesicular organelles in axons of nerve cells are transported along microtubules either toward their plus ends (fast anterograde transport) or toward their minus ends (retrograde transport). Two microtubule-based motors were previously identified by examining plastic beads induced to move along microtubules by cytosol fractions from the squid giant axon: (i) an anterograde motor, kinesin, and (ii) a retrograde motor, which is characterized here. The retrograde motor, a cytosolic protein previously termed HMW1, was purified from optic lobes and extruded axoplasm by nucleotide-dependent microtubule affinity and release; microtubule gliding was used as the assay of motor activity. The following properties of the retrograde motor suggest that it is cytoplasmic dynein: (i) sedimentation at 20-22 S with a heavy chain of M(r) > 200,000 that coelectrophoreses with the α and β subunits of axonemal dynein, (ii) cleavage by UV irradiation in the presence of ATP and vanadate, and (iii) a molecular structure resembling two-headed dynein from axonemes. Furthermore, bead movement toward the minus end of microtubules was blocked when axoplasmic supernatants were treated with UV/vanadate. Treatment of axoplasmic supernatant with UV/vanadate also blocks the retrograde movement of purified organelles in vitro without changing the number of anterograde moving organelles, indicating that dynein interacts specifically with a subgroup of organelles programmed to move toward the cell body. However, purified optic lobe dynein, like purified kinesin, does not by itself promote the movement of purified organelles along microtubules, suggesting that additional axoplasmic factors are necessary for retrograde as well as anterograde transport.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1548-1552
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume86
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dyneins
Axonal Transport
Microtubules
Organelles
Vanadates
Kinesin
Axons
Axonemal Dyneins
Cytoplasmic Dyneins
Axoneme
Decapodiformes
Molecular Structure
Cytosol
Plastics
Motor Activity
Nucleotides
Adenosine Triphosphate
Neurons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General
  • Genetics

Cite this

Dynein is the motor for retrograde axonal transport of organelles. / Schnapp, Bruce; Reese, T. S.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 86, No. 5, 1989, p. 1548-1552.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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