Direct electron transfer between copper-containing proteins and electrodes

Sergey Shleev, Jan Tkac, Andreas Christenson, Tautgirdas Ruzgas, Alexander I. Yaropolov, James W. Whittaker, Lo Gorton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

541 Scopus citations


The electrochemistry of some copper-containing proteins and enzymes, viz. azurin, galactose oxidase, tyrosinase (catechol oxidase), and the "blue" multicopper oxidases (ascorbate oxidase, bilirubin oxidase, ceruloplasmin, laccase) is reviewed and discussed in conjunction with their basic biochemical and structural characteristics. It is shown that long-range electron transfer between these enzymes and electrodes can be established, and the mechanistic schemes of the DET processes are proposed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2517-2554
Number of pages38
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Ascorbate oxidase
  • Azurin
  • Bilirubin oxidase
  • Ceruloplasmin
  • Direct electron transfer
  • Galactose oxidase
  • Gold electrode
  • Graphite electrode
  • Hemocyanin
  • Laccase
  • Redox potential
  • T1, T2 and T3 sites
  • Tyrosinase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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