Differential roles of GnRH-I and GnRH-II neurons in the control of the primate reproductive axis

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    12 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents the primary neuroen-docrine link between the brain and the reproductive axis, and in some species up to three different forms of GnRH have been detected. Until recently, it had been assumed that humans and non-human primates only express one form (GnRH-I), but it is now clear they also express a second form (GnRH-II). GnRH-II, like GnRH-I, is highly effective at stimulating gonadotropin release, both in vitro and in vivo, but the neurons that produce GnRH-II are completely distinct from those producing GnRH-I. Moreover, GnRH-II and GnRH-I produc-ing neurons respond very differently to estradiol; specifically, estradiol stimulates GnRH-II gene expression in the former and inhibit GnRH-I gene expression in the latter. Conse-quently, the negative feedback action of estradiol may be mediated exclusively by the subpopulation of GnRH neurons that express GnRH-I, while the positive feedback action may be mediated exclusively by the subpopulation that expresses GnRH-II.Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that two completely different GnRH neuronal systems participate in the control of primate reproductive physiology. The primary role of GnRH-I neurons is likely to be focused on the maintenance and modulation of tonic pulsatile LH release, whereas the primary role of GnRH-II neurons is likely to be focused on the generation of the preovulatory LH surge. This functional segregation of the primate neu-roendocrine reproductive axis lends itself for novel targeted approaches to fertility control and for treatment of human reproductive disorders.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article numberArticle 20
    JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
    Volume3
    Issue numberFEB
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2012

    Fingerprint

    Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
    Primates
    Neurons
    Estradiol
    Gene Expression
    Gonadotropins
    Contraception
    Vertebrates

    Keywords

    • Estradiol
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    • Ovulation
    • Rhesus macaque

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

    Cite this

    Differential roles of GnRH-I and GnRH-II neurons in the control of the primate reproductive axis. / Urbanski, Henryk.

    In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol. 3, No. FEB, Article 20, 2012.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    @article{94193401ee2b4011b44c5a126de8df48,
    title = "Differential roles of GnRH-I and GnRH-II neurons in the control of the primate reproductive axis",
    abstract = "In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents the primary neuroen-docrine link between the brain and the reproductive axis, and in some species up to three different forms of GnRH have been detected. Until recently, it had been assumed that humans and non-human primates only express one form (GnRH-I), but it is now clear they also express a second form (GnRH-II). GnRH-II, like GnRH-I, is highly effective at stimulating gonadotropin release, both in vitro and in vivo, but the neurons that produce GnRH-II are completely distinct from those producing GnRH-I. Moreover, GnRH-II and GnRH-I produc-ing neurons respond very differently to estradiol; specifically, estradiol stimulates GnRH-II gene expression in the former and inhibit GnRH-I gene expression in the latter. Conse-quently, the negative feedback action of estradiol may be mediated exclusively by the subpopulation of GnRH neurons that express GnRH-I, while the positive feedback action may be mediated exclusively by the subpopulation that expresses GnRH-II.Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that two completely different GnRH neuronal systems participate in the control of primate reproductive physiology. The primary role of GnRH-I neurons is likely to be focused on the maintenance and modulation of tonic pulsatile LH release, whereas the primary role of GnRH-II neurons is likely to be focused on the generation of the preovulatory LH surge. This functional segregation of the primate neu-roendocrine reproductive axis lends itself for novel targeted approaches to fertility control and for treatment of human reproductive disorders.",
    keywords = "Estradiol, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Ovulation, Rhesus macaque",
    author = "Henryk Urbanski",
    year = "2012",
    doi = "10.3389/fendo.2012.00020",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "3",
    journal = "Frontiers in Endocrinology",
    issn = "1664-2392",
    publisher = "Frontiers Media S. A.",
    number = "FEB",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Differential roles of GnRH-I and GnRH-II neurons in the control of the primate reproductive axis

    AU - Urbanski, Henryk

    PY - 2012

    Y1 - 2012

    N2 - In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents the primary neuroen-docrine link between the brain and the reproductive axis, and in some species up to three different forms of GnRH have been detected. Until recently, it had been assumed that humans and non-human primates only express one form (GnRH-I), but it is now clear they also express a second form (GnRH-II). GnRH-II, like GnRH-I, is highly effective at stimulating gonadotropin release, both in vitro and in vivo, but the neurons that produce GnRH-II are completely distinct from those producing GnRH-I. Moreover, GnRH-II and GnRH-I produc-ing neurons respond very differently to estradiol; specifically, estradiol stimulates GnRH-II gene expression in the former and inhibit GnRH-I gene expression in the latter. Conse-quently, the negative feedback action of estradiol may be mediated exclusively by the subpopulation of GnRH neurons that express GnRH-I, while the positive feedback action may be mediated exclusively by the subpopulation that expresses GnRH-II.Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that two completely different GnRH neuronal systems participate in the control of primate reproductive physiology. The primary role of GnRH-I neurons is likely to be focused on the maintenance and modulation of tonic pulsatile LH release, whereas the primary role of GnRH-II neurons is likely to be focused on the generation of the preovulatory LH surge. This functional segregation of the primate neu-roendocrine reproductive axis lends itself for novel targeted approaches to fertility control and for treatment of human reproductive disorders.

    AB - In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents the primary neuroen-docrine link between the brain and the reproductive axis, and in some species up to three different forms of GnRH have been detected. Until recently, it had been assumed that humans and non-human primates only express one form (GnRH-I), but it is now clear they also express a second form (GnRH-II). GnRH-II, like GnRH-I, is highly effective at stimulating gonadotropin release, both in vitro and in vivo, but the neurons that produce GnRH-II are completely distinct from those producing GnRH-I. Moreover, GnRH-II and GnRH-I produc-ing neurons respond very differently to estradiol; specifically, estradiol stimulates GnRH-II gene expression in the former and inhibit GnRH-I gene expression in the latter. Conse-quently, the negative feedback action of estradiol may be mediated exclusively by the subpopulation of GnRH neurons that express GnRH-I, while the positive feedback action may be mediated exclusively by the subpopulation that expresses GnRH-II.Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that two completely different GnRH neuronal systems participate in the control of primate reproductive physiology. The primary role of GnRH-I neurons is likely to be focused on the maintenance and modulation of tonic pulsatile LH release, whereas the primary role of GnRH-II neurons is likely to be focused on the generation of the preovulatory LH surge. This functional segregation of the primate neu-roendocrine reproductive axis lends itself for novel targeted approaches to fertility control and for treatment of human reproductive disorders.

    KW - Estradiol

    KW - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    KW - Ovulation

    KW - Rhesus macaque

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84874401901&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84874401901&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.3389/fendo.2012.00020

    DO - 10.3389/fendo.2012.00020

    M3 - Article

    C2 - 22645518

    AN - SCOPUS:84874401901

    VL - 3

    JO - Frontiers in Endocrinology

    JF - Frontiers in Endocrinology

    SN - 1664-2392

    IS - FEB

    M1 - Article 20

    ER -