Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for active tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this paper was to estimate the risk of hospitalization for TB with and without a secondary diagnosis of diabetes in groups with different ethnic backgrounds. Research design and methods: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2011, identifying all patients with a primary diagnosis of TB and/or a secondary diagnosis of diabetes (type 1 or type 2) or HIV. Next, we performed logistic regression to investigate the association of diabetes status, HIV status, and race (and the interaction of diabetes and race) with the risk of hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of TB. We also included a time covariate, to determine whether potential risk factors changed during the study period. Results: Controlling for HIV status, diabetes did not increase the odds of TB in white and black patients. However, in Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander patients, diabetes increased the odds of TB by a factor of 1.7 (95% CI 1.51 to 1.83). Asian/Pacific Islanders who had diabetes but not HIV experienced 26.4 (95% CI 23.1 to 30.1) times the odds of TB relative to the white males without diabetes or HIV. In addition, the percent of TB cases that belong to these high-risk groups (Asian/Pacific Islander/Hispanic diabetics) has more than doubled from 4.6% in 1998 to 9.6% in 2011. Conclusions: In specific demographic groups, diabetes was a strong risk factor for hospital admissions for TB.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism