Development and validation of the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale: Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22)

Takahiro A. Kato, Ryoko Katsuki, Hiroaki Kubo, Norihiro Shimokawa, Mina Sato-Kasai, Kohei Hayakawa, Nobuki Kuwano, Wakako Umene-Nakano, Masaru Tateno, Daiki Setoyama, Dongchon Kang, Motoki Watabe, Shinji Sakamoto, Alan Teo, Shigenobu Kanba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: Understanding premorbid personality is important, especially when considering treatment selection. Historically, the premorbid personality of patients with major depression in Japan was described as Shuchaku-kishitsu [similar to Typus melancholicus], as proposed by Shimoda in the 1930s. Since around 2000, there have been increased reports in Japan of young adults with depression who have had premorbid personality differing from the traditional type. In 2005, Tarumi termed this novel condition ‘dysthymic-type depression,’ and more recently the condition has been called Shin-gata/Gendai-gata Utsu-byo [modern-type depression (MTD)]. We recently developed a semi-structured diagnostic interview to evaluate MTD. Development of a tool that enables understanding of premorbid personality in a short time, especially at the early stage of treatment, is desirable. The object of this study was to develop a self-report scale to evaluate the traits of MTD, and to assess the scale's psychometric properties, diagnostic accuracy, and biological validity. Methods: A sample of 340 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis. Diagnostic accuracy of the MTD traits was compared against a semi-structured interview. Results: The questionnaire contained 22 items across three subscales, thus we termed it the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale: Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22). Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent validity were all satisfactory. Among patients with major depression, the area under the curve was 0.757 (sensitivity of 63.1% and specificity of 82.9%) and the score was positively correlated with plasma tryptophan. Conclusion: The TACS-22 possessed adequate psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy in an initial sample of Japanese adults. Additional research on its ability to support clinical assessment of MTD is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Self Concept
Depression
Personality
Psychometrics
Japan
Interviews
Aptitude
Reproducibility of Results
Tryptophan
Self Report
Statistical Factor Analysis
Area Under Curve
Young Adult
Sensitivity and Specificity
Therapeutics
Research

Keywords

  • dysthymic-type depression
  • hikikomori
  • major depressive disorder
  • melancholic-type depression
  • premorbid personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Development and validation of the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale : Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22). / Kato, Takahiro A.; Katsuki, Ryoko; Kubo, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Hayakawa, Kohei; Kuwano, Nobuki; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Tateno, Masaru; Setoyama, Daiki; Kang, Dongchon; Watabe, Motoki; Sakamoto, Shinji; Teo, Alan; Kanba, Shigenobu.

In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kato, TA, Katsuki, R, Kubo, H, Shimokawa, N, Sato-Kasai, M, Hayakawa, K, Kuwano, N, Umene-Nakano, W, Tateno, M, Setoyama, D, Kang, D, Watabe, M, Sakamoto, S, Teo, A & Kanba, S 2019, 'Development and validation of the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale: Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22)', Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12842
Kato, Takahiro A. ; Katsuki, Ryoko ; Kubo, Hiroaki ; Shimokawa, Norihiro ; Sato-Kasai, Mina ; Hayakawa, Kohei ; Kuwano, Nobuki ; Umene-Nakano, Wakako ; Tateno, Masaru ; Setoyama, Daiki ; Kang, Dongchon ; Watabe, Motoki ; Sakamoto, Shinji ; Teo, Alan ; Kanba, Shigenobu. / Development and validation of the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale : Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22). In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2019.
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abstract = "Aim: Understanding premorbid personality is important, especially when considering treatment selection. Historically, the premorbid personality of patients with major depression in Japan was described as Shuchaku-kishitsu [similar to Typus melancholicus], as proposed by Shimoda in the 1930s. Since around 2000, there have been increased reports in Japan of young adults with depression who have had premorbid personality differing from the traditional type. In 2005, Tarumi termed this novel condition ‘dysthymic-type depression,’ and more recently the condition has been called Shin-gata/Gendai-gata Utsu-byo [modern-type depression (MTD)]. We recently developed a semi-structured diagnostic interview to evaluate MTD. Development of a tool that enables understanding of premorbid personality in a short time, especially at the early stage of treatment, is desirable. The object of this study was to develop a self-report scale to evaluate the traits of MTD, and to assess the scale's psychometric properties, diagnostic accuracy, and biological validity. Methods: A sample of 340 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis. Diagnostic accuracy of the MTD traits was compared against a semi-structured interview. Results: The questionnaire contained 22 items across three subscales, thus we termed it the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale: Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22). Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent validity were all satisfactory. Among patients with major depression, the area under the curve was 0.757 (sensitivity of 63.1{\%} and specificity of 82.9{\%}) and the score was positively correlated with plasma tryptophan. Conclusion: The TACS-22 possessed adequate psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy in an initial sample of Japanese adults. Additional research on its ability to support clinical assessment of MTD is warranted.",
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AU - Katsuki, Ryoko

AU - Kubo, Hiroaki

AU - Shimokawa, Norihiro

AU - Sato-Kasai, Mina

AU - Hayakawa, Kohei

AU - Kuwano, Nobuki

AU - Umene-Nakano, Wakako

AU - Tateno, Masaru

AU - Setoyama, Daiki

AU - Kang, Dongchon

AU - Watabe, Motoki

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