Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay

Jeffrey Stanton, Jian Chao Zong, Erin Latimer, Jie Tan, Alan Herron, Gary S. Hayward, Paul D. Ling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay. Animals - 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd. Procedures - A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Results - The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)925-933
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume71
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes

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Elephantid herpesvirus 1
Elephas maximus
Herpesviridae
Elephantidae
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
quantitative polymerase chain reaction
assays
herds
secretion
Viral Genes
DNA
genes
blood
virus transmission
pathogenesis
Viruses
sampling
viruses
Viral DNA
Disease Management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. / Stanton, Jeffrey; Zong, Jian Chao; Latimer, Erin; Tan, Jie; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 71, No. 8, 08.2010, p. 925-933.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective - To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay. Animals - 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd. Procedures - A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Results - The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations.",
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