Detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection among healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in South India

Jeffrey J. Stanton, Sally A. Nofs, Arun Zachariah, N. Kalaivannan, Paul D. Ling

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    14 Scopus citations


    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Of the seven known EEHV species, EEHV1 is recognized as the most common cause of hemorrhagic disease among Asian elephants in human care worldwide. Recent data collected from ex situ Asian elephants located in multiple North American and European institutions suggest that subclinical EEHV1 infection is common in this population of elephants. Although fatal EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease has been reported in range countries, data are lacking regarding the prevalence of subclinical EEHV infections among in situ Asian elephants. We used previously validated EEHV-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays to detect subclinical EEHV infection in three regionally distinct Asian elephant cohorts, totaling 46 in situ elephants in South India, during October and November 2011. Using DNA prepared from trunk washes, we detected EEHV1, EEHV3/4, and EEHV5 at frequencies of 7, 9, and 20% respectively. None of the trunk washes was positive for EEHV2 or 6. At least one EEHV species was detectable in 35% (16/46) of the samples that were screened. These data suggest that subclinical EEHV infection among in situ Asian elephants occurs and that Asian elephants may be natural hosts for EEHV1, EEHV3 or 4, and EEHV5, but not EEHV2 and EEHV6. The methodology described in this study provides a foundation for further studies to determine prevalences of EEHV infection in Asian elephants throughout the world.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)279-287
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Wildlife Diseases
    Issue number2
    StatePublished - Apr 2014


    • Elephant herpesvirus
    • Elephas maximus
    • India
    • Proboscivirus
    • Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
    • Ecology

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