Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure genomic changes that emerge with enzalutamide treatment using analyses of whole-genome sequencing and RNA sequencing. Experimental Design: One hundred and one tumors from men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who had not been treated with enzalutamide (n ¼ 64) or who had enzalutamide-resistant mCRPC (n ¼ 37) underwent whole genome sequencing. Ninety-nine of these tumors also underwent RNA sequencing. We analyzed the genomes and transcriptomes of these mCRPC tumors. Results: Copy number loss was more common than gain in enzalutamide-resistant tumors. Specially, we identified 124 protein-coding genes that were more commonly lost in enzalutamide-resistant samples. These 124 genes included eight putative tumor suppressors located at nine distinct genomic regions. We demonstrated that focal deletion of the 17q22 locus that includes RNF43 and SRSF1 was not present in any patient with enzalutamide-naïve mCRPC but was present in 16% (6/37) of patients with enzalutamide-resistant mCRPC. 17q22 loss was associated with lower RNF43 and SRSF1 expression and poor overall survival from time of biopsy [median overall survival of 19.3 months in 17q22 intact vs. 8.9 months in 17q22 loss, HR, 3.44 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.338-8.867, log-rank P ¼ 0.006]. Finally, 17q22 loss was linked with activation of several targetable factors, including CDK1/2, Akt, and PLK1, demonstrating the potential therapeutic relevance of 17q22 loss in mCRPC. Conclusions: Copy number loss is common in enzalutamide-resistant tumors. Focal deletion of chromosome 17q22 defines a previously unappreciated molecular subset of enzalutamide-resistant mCRPC associated with poor clinical outcome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research