Compensatory post-diuretic renal sodium reabsorption is not a dominant mechanism of diuretic resistance in acute heart failure

Zachary L. Cox, Veena S. Rao, Juan B. Ivey-Miranda, Julieta Moreno-Villagomez, Devin Mahoney, Piotr Ponikowski, Jan Biegus, Jeffrey M. Turner, Christopher Maulion, Lavanya Bellumkonda, Jennifer L. Asher, Helen Parise, Perry F. Wilson, David H. Ellison, Christopher S. Wilcox, Jeffrey M. Testani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Aims: In healthy volunteers, the kidney deploys compensatory post-diuretic sodium reabsorption (CPDSR) following loop diuretic-induced natriuresis, minimizing sodium excretion and producing a neutral sodium balance. CPDSR is extrapolated to non-euvolemic populations as a diuretic resistance mechanism; however, its importance in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is unknown. Methods and results: Patients with ADHF in the Mechanisms of Diuretic Resistance cohort receiving intravenous loop diuretics (462 administrations in 285 patients) underwent supervised urine collections entailing an immediate pre-diuretic spot urine sample, then 6-h (diuretic-induced natriuresis period) and 18-h (post-diuretic period) urine collections. The average spot urine sodium concentration immediately prior to diuretic administration [median 15 h (13-17) after last diuretic] was 64 ± 33 mmol/L with only 4% of patients having low (<20 mmol/L) urine sodium consistent with CPDSR. Paradoxically, greater 6-h diuretic-induced natriuresis was associated with larger 18-h post-diuretic spontaneous natriuresis (r = 0.7, P < 0.001). Higher pre-diuretic urine sodium to creatinine ratio (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) was the strongest predictor of post-diuretic spontaneous natriuresis. In a subgroup of patients (n = 43) randomized to protocol-driven intensified diuretic therapies, the mean diuretic-induced natriuresis increased three-fold. In contrast to the substantial decrease in spontaneous natriuresis predicted by CPDSR, no change in post-diuretic spontaneous natriuresis was observed (P = 0.47). Conclusion: On a population level, CPDSR was not an important driver of diuretic resistance in hypervolemic ADHF. Contrary to CPDSR, a greater diuretic-induced natriuresis predicted a larger post-diuretic spontaneous natriuresis. Basal sodium avidity, rather than diuretic-induced CPDSR, appears to be the predominant determinate of both diuretic-induced and post-diuretic natriuresis in hypervolemic ADHF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4468-4477
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean heart journal
Issue number43
StatePublished - Nov 14 2021


  • Acute heart failure
  • Diuretic
  • Heart failure
  • Post-diuretic
  • Reabsorption
  • Sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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