Comparative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of liquid stable glucagon versus lyophilized glucagon in type 1 diabetes subjects

Jessica Castle, Joseph El Youssef, Deborah Branigan, Brett Newswanger, Poul Strange, Martin Cummins, Leon Shi, Steven Prestrelski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Scopus citations


Background: There is currently no stable liquid form of glucagon commercially available. The aim of this study is to assess the speed of absorption and onset of action of G-Pump™ glucagon at 3 doses as compared to GlucaGen®, all delivered subcutaneously via an OmniPod®. Methods: Nineteen adult subjects with type 1 diabetes participated in this Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study. Subjects were given 0.3, 1.2, and 2.0 μg/kg each of G-Pump glucagon and GlucaGen via an OmniPod. Results: G-Pump glucagon effectively increased blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent fashion with a glucose Cmax of 183, 200, and 210 mg/dL at doses of 0.3, 1.2, and 2.0 μg/kg, respectively (P = ns vs GlucaGen). Mean increases in blood glucose from baseline were 29.2, 52.9, and 77.7 mg/dL for G-Pump doses of 0.3, 1.2, and 2.0 μg/kg, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in the glucose T50%-early or glucagon T50%-early with one exception. The glucagon T50%-early was greater following G-Pump treatment at the 2.0 μg/kg dose (13.9 ± 4.7 min) compared with GlucaGen treatment at the 2.0 μg/kg dose (11.0 ± 3.1 min, P = .018). There was more pain and erythema at the infusion site with G-Pump as compared to GlucaGen. No serious adverse events were reported, and no unexpected safety issues were observed. Conclusions: G-Pump glucagon is a novel, stable glucagon formulation with similar PK/PD properties as GlucaGen, but was associated with more pain and infusion site reactions as the dose increased, as compared to GlucaGen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1101-1107
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of diabetes science and technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2016



  • Artificial pancreas
  • Glucagon
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine(all)
  • Biomedical Engineering

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