Purpose: We examined differential effects of cognitive impairment on each of the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) tasks. Design and Methods: In a 3-year follow-up of community-dwelling elderly persons in Azuchi, Japan, we assessed cognition by using the Hasegawa Dementia Scale. We examined (a) the cross-sectional association between cognitive impairment and functional disability in each ADL-IADL item; (b) cognitive impairment as a risk factor for incident disability in each ADL-IADL item, through logistic regression models; and (c) probabilities of incident loss of ADL-IADL abilities or death in 3 years, using multinomial logistic regression models. We also calculated the population attributable risk (PAR%) of cognitive impairment on incident loss of task-specific ADL-IADL abilities. Results: Cross-sectionally, the severity of cognitive impairment was associated with disability in each ADL-IADL task, with larger effects shown for ADL items. Longitudinally, minimally or mildly cognitively impaired individuals had a significantly higher risk of losing functional abilities compared with those with intact cognition. The PAR% indicated that cognitive impairment accounts for 11% to 36% of incident disability in ADL-IADL tasks, with the highest PAR% shown for the ability to feed oneself. Implications: Cognitively impaired subjects are heterogeneous; the severity of cognitive impairment has a different impact on incident loss of task-specific ADL-IADL abilities, and comorbidities could affect disabilities differently. Consideration of these heterogeneities will enrich future studies on the impact of cognitive impairment on ADL-IADL abilities.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2005|
- Caregiving needs
- Hasegawa Dementia Scale
- Population attributable risk
ASJC Scopus subject areas