Clinical Clues and Diagnostic Workup of Cardiac Amyloidosis

Sajan S. Gill, Eric Fellin, Lisa Stampke, Yunazi Zhao, Ahmad Masri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Cardiac amyloidosis is increasingly recognized as an underlying cause of left ventricular wall thickening, heart failure, and arrhythmia with variable clinical presentation. Due to the subtle cardiac findings in early transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis and the availability of therapies that can modify but not reverse the disease progression, early recognition is vital. In light chain amyloidosis, timely diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve survival. In this manuscript, we review the clinical, imaging, and electrocardiographic clues that should raise suspicion for cardiac amyloidosis and provide a simplified diagnostic workup algorithm that ensures an accurate diagnosis. The evolution of the noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis has significantly influenced our understanding of disease prevalence, presentations, and outcomes. However, clinical recognition of clues and red flags remains the most important factor in advancing the care of patients with cardiac amyloidosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-46
Number of pages11
JournalMethodist DeBakey cardiovascular journal
Volume18
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Keywords

  • aortic stenosis
  • bone scintigraphy
  • cardiac amyloidosis
  • cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
  • endomyocardial biopsy
  • heart failure
  • immunoglobulin light chain
  • left ventricular hypertrophy
  • systemic amyloidosis
  • transthyretin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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