Characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from L'Hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus l'hoesti): Implications for the origins of SIVmnd and other primate lentiviruses

Vanessa M. Hirsch, Barbara J. Campbell, Elizabeth Bailes, Robert Goeken, Charles Brown, William R. Elkins, Michael Axthelm, Michael Murphey-Corb, Paul M. Sharp

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    87 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) appear to have originated by crossspecies transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from asymptomatically infected African primates. Few of the SIVs characterized to date efficiently infect human primary lymphocytes. Interesting, two of the three identified to infect such cultures (SIVsm and SIVcpz) have appeared in human populations as genetically related HIVs. In the present study, we characterized a novel SIV isolate from an East African monkey of the Cercopithecus genus, the l'hoest monkey (C. l'hoesti), which we designated SIVIhoest. This SIV isolate efficiently infected both human and macaque lymphocytes and resulted in a persistent infection of macaques, characterized by high primary virus load and a progressive decline in circulating CD4 lymphocytes, consistent with progression to AIDS. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SIVIhoest is genetically distinct from other previously characterized primate lentiviruses but clusters in the same major lineage as SIV from mandrills (SIVmnd), a West African primate species. Given the geographic distance between the ranges of l'hoest monkeys and mandrills, this may indicate that SIVmnd arose through cross-species transmission from close relatives of l'hoest monkeys that are sympatric with mandrills. These observations lend support to the hypothesis that the primate lentiviruses originated and coevolved within monkeys of the Cercopithecus genus, regarded in this light, lentivirus infections of primates not belonging to the Cercopithecus genus may have resulted from cross-species transmission in the not-too-distant past.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1036-1045
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Virology
    Volume73
    Issue number2
    StatePublished - 1999

    Fingerprint

    Cercopithecus
    Primate Lentiviruses
    Simian immunodeficiency virus
    Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
    Lentivirus
    Mandrillus
    Haplorhini
    monkeys
    Primates
    Human immunodeficiency virus 2
    HIV-2
    lymphocytes
    Macaca
    Lymphocytes
    Human immunodeficiency virus 1
    HIV-1
    Lentivirus Infections
    viral load
    human population
    infection

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Immunology

    Cite this

    Characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from L'Hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus l'hoesti) : Implications for the origins of SIVmnd and other primate lentiviruses. / Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Campbell, Barbara J.; Bailes, Elizabeth; Goeken, Robert; Brown, Charles; Elkins, William R.; Axthelm, Michael; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Sharp, Paul M.

    In: Journal of Virology, Vol. 73, No. 2, 1999, p. 1036-1045.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hirsch, Vanessa M. ; Campbell, Barbara J. ; Bailes, Elizabeth ; Goeken, Robert ; Brown, Charles ; Elkins, William R. ; Axthelm, Michael ; Murphey-Corb, Michael ; Sharp, Paul M. / Characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from L'Hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus l'hoesti) : Implications for the origins of SIVmnd and other primate lentiviruses. In: Journal of Virology. 1999 ; Vol. 73, No. 2. pp. 1036-1045.
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    abstract = "The human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) appear to have originated by crossspecies transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from asymptomatically infected African primates. Few of the SIVs characterized to date efficiently infect human primary lymphocytes. Interesting, two of the three identified to infect such cultures (SIVsm and SIVcpz) have appeared in human populations as genetically related HIVs. In the present study, we characterized a novel SIV isolate from an East African monkey of the Cercopithecus genus, the l'hoest monkey (C. l'hoesti), which we designated SIVIhoest. This SIV isolate efficiently infected both human and macaque lymphocytes and resulted in a persistent infection of macaques, characterized by high primary virus load and a progressive decline in circulating CD4 lymphocytes, consistent with progression to AIDS. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SIVIhoest is genetically distinct from other previously characterized primate lentiviruses but clusters in the same major lineage as SIV from mandrills (SIVmnd), a West African primate species. Given the geographic distance between the ranges of l'hoest monkeys and mandrills, this may indicate that SIVmnd arose through cross-species transmission from close relatives of l'hoest monkeys that are sympatric with mandrills. These observations lend support to the hypothesis that the primate lentiviruses originated and coevolved within monkeys of the Cercopithecus genus, regarded in this light, lentivirus infections of primates not belonging to the Cercopithecus genus may have resulted from cross-species transmission in the not-too-distant past.",
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