The absence of erythrocytic adenosine deaminase (ADA) or purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) has been associated with severe immunodeficiency disease in children. We have developed a cell culture model to study the possible relationships between purine salvage enzymes and immunologic function using an established T cell lymphosarcoma (S49) and a potent inhibitor of ADA, erythro-9(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA). Wild-type S49 cells are killed by dexamethasone or dbc AMP, and adenosine (5 μM) in the presence of an ADA inhibitor (6 μM EHNA) also prevents the growth of and kills these S49 cells. It has been proposed that adenosine is toxic to lymphoid cells by virtue of its ability to increase the intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP. We examined the sensitivity of three mutants of S49 cells, with distinctive defects in some component of cyclic AMP metabolism or action, to killing by adenosine and EHNA. All three mutants are resistant to killing by isoproterenol or cholera toxin, and two are resistant to dbc AMP itself, but all are sensitive to killing by adenosine and EHNA. Similarly, two dexamethasone-resistant S49 mutants are as sensitive to adenosine and EHNA as are the wild-type cells. We have also simulated the purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in S49 cells by adding inosine and adenosine to the growth medium. In the presence of EHNA or inosine, the toxic effects of adenosine can be partially reversed by addition of (10-20 μM) uridine, an observation suggesting that adenosine is toxic as the result of its inducing pyrimidine starvation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)