Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) enables multi-dimensional and multi-scale imaging via illuminating specimens with a separate thin sheet of laser. It allows rapid plane illumination for reduced photo-damage and superior axial resolution and contrast. We hereby demonstrate cardiac LSFM (c-LSFM) imaging to assess the functional architecture of zebrafish embryos with a retrospective cardiac synchronization algorithm for four-dimensional reconstruction (3-D space + time). By combining our approach with tissue clearing techniques, we reveal the entire cardiac structures and hypertrabeculation of adult zebrafish hearts in response to doxorubicin treatment. By integrating the resolution enhancement technique with c-LSFM to increase the resolving power under a large field-of-view, we demonstrate the use of low power objective to resolve the entire architecture of large-scale neonatal mouse hearts, revealing the helical orientation of individual myocardial fibers. Therefore, our c-LSFM imaging approach provides multi-scale visualization of architecture and function to drive cardiovascular research with translational implication in congenital heart diseases.
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