In the past two decades, there has been a dramatic evolution in behavioral management programs designed to provide captive nonhuman primates (NHPs) with species-appropriate housing, environmental enrichment, and socialization. Such programs are designed to promote normal behavior, 280reduce stress, and improve NHPs’ ability to cope with stress, with the ultimate goal of ensuring the animals’ mental and physical health. Once considered “extra,” these programs are now a fundamental part of animal care. This progress is, in large part, a result of increased research efforts examining behavioral needs of NHPs and how these needs might be met in captivity. With Macaca being the most commonly used genus of NHP in biomedical research (Carlsson et al. 2004), a great deal of research has focused on finding optimal behavioral management strategies for macaque species. Such research has led to innovations in socialization and rearing strategies, identification of efficacious enrichment tools and techniques, and an increased understanding of the role of positive reinforcement training (PRT) in promoting welfare. Macaque behavioral managers now have a large toolbox of techniques they can utilize to improve captive welfare; however, the optimal strategies for any given program vary based on facility size, resources, and research goals. In this chapter, we discuss many of these behavioral management tools, including socialization, environmental enrichment, and PRT. We further provide our recommendations for a successful macaque behavioral management program, recognizing that limitations common to most primate facilities (e.g., funding, staff, time, etc.) often impact management decisions.
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