Aim: To evaluate if autism symptoms and diagnoses are more common in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) than in typically developing children, to which levels, and to determine if co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology accounts for this increase. Method: We searched hospital electronic medical records (EMR) for International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision NF1 and co-occurring diagnoses codes. We recruited a subsample of 45 children (mean age 9y 2mo; SD 2y 7mo; range 5–12y; 22 males, 23 females) and collected parental reports of autism symptomatology, adaptive behavior, and behavioral problems that were compared to those of 360 age- and sex-matched controls from the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; SSC-ASD) or typically developing (SSC-TD). Results: The EMR search identified 968 children with NF1; 8.8% had ADHD and 2.1% had ASD co-occurring diagnoses. In the subsample, the mean autism scale score for participants with NF1 was below cut-off for significant autism symptoms. Participants with NF1 had significantly more autism and behavioral symptoms than SSC-TD participants, and significantly less than SSC-ASD participants, with one exception: ADHD symptom levels were similar to those of SSC-ASD participants. In analyses that controlled for internalizing, ADHD, and communication scores, the difference in autism symptom levels between participants with NF1 and typically developing controls disappeared almost entirely. Interpretation: Our results do not support an association between NF1 and autism, both at the symptom and disorder levels.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental Neuroscience
- Clinical Neurology