Introduction It is unknown whether the criteria used to define protein−energy wasting (PEW) syndrome in dialysis patients reflect protein or energy wasting in the general and moderate CKD populations. Methods In 11,834 participants in the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, individual PEW syndrome criteria and the number of PEW syndrome categories were related to lean body and fat masses (measured by dual-energy absorptiometry) using linear regression in the entire cohort and CKD subpopulation. Results Serum chemistry, body mass, and muscle mass PEW criteria tended to be associated with lower lean body and fat masses, but the low dietary protein and energy intake criteria were associated with significantly higher protein and energy stores. When the number of PEW syndrome categories was defined by nondietary categories alone, there was a monotonic inverse relationship with lean body and fat masses and a strong positive relationship with mortality. In contrast, when dietary category alone was present, mean body mass index was in the obesity range; the additional presence of 2 nondietary categories was associated with lower body mass index and lower lean body and fat masses. Thus, the association of a dietary category plus 2 additional nondietary categories with lower protein or energy stores was driven by the presence of the 2 nondietary categories. Results were similar in CKD subgroup. Discussion Hence, a definition of PEW syndrome without dietary variables has face validity and reflects protein or energy wasting.
- protein−energy wasting
ASJC Scopus subject areas