Associations between childhood refraction and parental smoking

Richard A. Stone, Lorri Wilson, Gui Shuang Ying, Chengcheng Liu, Jonathan S. Criss, Joshua Orlow, Jon M. Lindstrom, Graham E. Quinn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE. Motivated by pharmacologic findings linking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to eye development in chicks, the authors studied whether the refractions of children who were passively exposed to cigarette smoke by their parents differed from those of nonexposed children. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 patients (mean ± SD age, 8.7 ± 4.4 years; range, 1-20) in a tertiary care pediatric ophthalmology clinic. Half (162/323) of the subjects had strabismus. The accompanying parent completed a detailed questionnaire on parental smoking history and on putative risk factors for myopia. The results were compared to the subjects' cycloplegic refractions. RESULTS. If one or both parents ever smoked, their children had a lower myopia prevalence (12.4% vs. 25.4%; P = 0.004) and more hyperopic mean refractions (1.83 ± 0.24 vs. 0.96 ± 0.27 diopters; P = 0.02) than those whose parents never smoked. Smoking by either parent during the mother's pregnancy had a similar effect on the child's refraction. The associations largely persisted, both in multivariate models that included adjustments for the child's age, child's body mass index, child's nearwork activity, parental myopia, and parental education and also in analysis by subgroups stratified by strabismus status. CONCLUSIONS. Despite the complex constituents of cigarette smoke, neuropharmacology perspectives may prove useful in the development of new hypotheses to understand the mechanisms governing refractive development, not only in experimental animals but also in children. The associations of less prevalent myopia and a more hyperopic mean refraction with both prenatal and childhood exposures to tobacco smoke suggest that nongenetic, environmental exposures may have long-term influences on refraction and that further study of the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in refractive development is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4277-4287
Number of pages11
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume47
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Smoking
Myopia
Smoke
Parents
Strabismus
Nicotinic Receptors
Tobacco Products
Neuropharmacology
Mydriatics
Environmental Exposure
Ophthalmology
Tertiary Healthcare
Tobacco
Body Mass Index
Cross-Sectional Studies
History
Mothers
Pediatrics
Education
Pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Stone, R. A., Wilson, L., Ying, G. S., Liu, C., Criss, J. S., Orlow, J., ... Quinn, G. E. (2006). Associations between childhood refraction and parental smoking. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 47(10), 4277-4287. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.05-1625

Associations between childhood refraction and parental smoking. / Stone, Richard A.; Wilson, Lorri; Ying, Gui Shuang; Liu, Chengcheng; Criss, Jonathan S.; Orlow, Joshua; Lindstrom, Jon M.; Quinn, Graham E.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 47, No. 10, 10.2006, p. 4277-4287.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stone, RA, Wilson, L, Ying, GS, Liu, C, Criss, JS, Orlow, J, Lindstrom, JM & Quinn, GE 2006, 'Associations between childhood refraction and parental smoking', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 4277-4287. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.05-1625
Stone, Richard A. ; Wilson, Lorri ; Ying, Gui Shuang ; Liu, Chengcheng ; Criss, Jonathan S. ; Orlow, Joshua ; Lindstrom, Jon M. ; Quinn, Graham E. / Associations between childhood refraction and parental smoking. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2006 ; Vol. 47, No. 10. pp. 4277-4287.
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abstract = "PURPOSE. Motivated by pharmacologic findings linking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to eye development in chicks, the authors studied whether the refractions of children who were passively exposed to cigarette smoke by their parents differed from those of nonexposed children. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 patients (mean ± SD age, 8.7 ± 4.4 years; range, 1-20) in a tertiary care pediatric ophthalmology clinic. Half (162/323) of the subjects had strabismus. The accompanying parent completed a detailed questionnaire on parental smoking history and on putative risk factors for myopia. The results were compared to the subjects' cycloplegic refractions. RESULTS. If one or both parents ever smoked, their children had a lower myopia prevalence (12.4{\%} vs. 25.4{\%}; P = 0.004) and more hyperopic mean refractions (1.83 ± 0.24 vs. 0.96 ± 0.27 diopters; P = 0.02) than those whose parents never smoked. Smoking by either parent during the mother's pregnancy had a similar effect on the child's refraction. The associations largely persisted, both in multivariate models that included adjustments for the child's age, child's body mass index, child's nearwork activity, parental myopia, and parental education and also in analysis by subgroups stratified by strabismus status. CONCLUSIONS. Despite the complex constituents of cigarette smoke, neuropharmacology perspectives may prove useful in the development of new hypotheses to understand the mechanisms governing refractive development, not only in experimental animals but also in children. The associations of less prevalent myopia and a more hyperopic mean refraction with both prenatal and childhood exposures to tobacco smoke suggest that nongenetic, environmental exposures may have long-term influences on refraction and that further study of the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in refractive development is warranted.",
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N2 - PURPOSE. Motivated by pharmacologic findings linking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to eye development in chicks, the authors studied whether the refractions of children who were passively exposed to cigarette smoke by their parents differed from those of nonexposed children. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 patients (mean ± SD age, 8.7 ± 4.4 years; range, 1-20) in a tertiary care pediatric ophthalmology clinic. Half (162/323) of the subjects had strabismus. The accompanying parent completed a detailed questionnaire on parental smoking history and on putative risk factors for myopia. The results were compared to the subjects' cycloplegic refractions. RESULTS. If one or both parents ever smoked, their children had a lower myopia prevalence (12.4% vs. 25.4%; P = 0.004) and more hyperopic mean refractions (1.83 ± 0.24 vs. 0.96 ± 0.27 diopters; P = 0.02) than those whose parents never smoked. Smoking by either parent during the mother's pregnancy had a similar effect on the child's refraction. The associations largely persisted, both in multivariate models that included adjustments for the child's age, child's body mass index, child's nearwork activity, parental myopia, and parental education and also in analysis by subgroups stratified by strabismus status. CONCLUSIONS. Despite the complex constituents of cigarette smoke, neuropharmacology perspectives may prove useful in the development of new hypotheses to understand the mechanisms governing refractive development, not only in experimental animals but also in children. The associations of less prevalent myopia and a more hyperopic mean refraction with both prenatal and childhood exposures to tobacco smoke suggest that nongenetic, environmental exposures may have long-term influences on refraction and that further study of the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in refractive development is warranted.

AB - PURPOSE. Motivated by pharmacologic findings linking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to eye development in chicks, the authors studied whether the refractions of children who were passively exposed to cigarette smoke by their parents differed from those of nonexposed children. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 patients (mean ± SD age, 8.7 ± 4.4 years; range, 1-20) in a tertiary care pediatric ophthalmology clinic. Half (162/323) of the subjects had strabismus. The accompanying parent completed a detailed questionnaire on parental smoking history and on putative risk factors for myopia. The results were compared to the subjects' cycloplegic refractions. RESULTS. If one or both parents ever smoked, their children had a lower myopia prevalence (12.4% vs. 25.4%; P = 0.004) and more hyperopic mean refractions (1.83 ± 0.24 vs. 0.96 ± 0.27 diopters; P = 0.02) than those whose parents never smoked. Smoking by either parent during the mother's pregnancy had a similar effect on the child's refraction. The associations largely persisted, both in multivariate models that included adjustments for the child's age, child's body mass index, child's nearwork activity, parental myopia, and parental education and also in analysis by subgroups stratified by strabismus status. CONCLUSIONS. Despite the complex constituents of cigarette smoke, neuropharmacology perspectives may prove useful in the development of new hypotheses to understand the mechanisms governing refractive development, not only in experimental animals but also in children. The associations of less prevalent myopia and a more hyperopic mean refraction with both prenatal and childhood exposures to tobacco smoke suggest that nongenetic, environmental exposures may have long-term influences on refraction and that further study of the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in refractive development is warranted.

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