Application of the Hill criteria to the causal association between post-traumatic headache and assault

Michael D. Freeman, Sean S. Kohles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is a common and disabling symptom secondary to the traumatic event. It is known that assault is associated with a wide range of physical symptoms including PTH. In this work, the general causation approach provided by the Hill criteria is described as an assessment tool for specific causation with regards to PTH and sexual assault. Time-dependent models of probability and, in-turn, relative risk are described as quantitative algorithms for addressing inductive and abductive conclusions of causation in forensic science.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35-40
Number of pages6
JournalEgyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2011



  • Biostatistics
  • Causation
  • Forensic biomechanics
  • Forensic epidemiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Health(social science)
  • Law

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