Objective: To determine whether antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing provides prognostic information in evaluating scleritis. Methods: Retrospective medical record review of patients evaluated at a tertiary care center from January 1, 1995, to June 30, 2006, was performed to compare clinical features, treatments, and associated systemic disease in patients who test positive for ANCA vs patients whose ANCA tests are negative. Results: Among 78 patients identified, 14 tested positive for ANCA. Patients with positive ANCA test results were more likely to have an associated systemic disorder (10 of 14 or 71%) than were patients who tested negative for ANCA (26 of 64 or 41%; P=.04), and the disorder was more likely to have been diagnosed as a result of scleritis work-up (2 of 10 or 20% vs 19 of 26 or 73%; P=.007). Patients with positive ANCA test results had significantly more ocular complications (21 of 14 or 86% vs 20 of 64 or 31%; P.001), including keratopathy (5 of 14 or 36% vs 6 of 64 or 9%; P=.02), visual acuity of 20/50 or worse (8 of 14 or 57% vs 11 of 64 or 17%; P=.001), and vascular pannus (3 of 14 or 21% vs 1 of 64 or 2%; P=.02). Aggressive therapy, such as chronic systemic corticosteroids (9 of 14 or 64% vs 9 of 64 or 14%; P < .001) and alkylator therapy (8 of 14 or 57% vs 7 of 64 or 11%; P < .001), was more likely to be recommended for patients who tested positive for ANCA. Conclusions: A substantial subset of patients with scleritis are also positive for ANCA. These patients are more likely to have severe ocular disease and undiagnosed primary vasculitic disease, thereby requiring more aggressive therapy. An ANCA test may be useful in the evaluation and treatment of patients with scleritis.
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