Anger and depression in cocaine addiction: Association with the orbitofrontal cortex

Rita Z. Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein, Andreana C. Leskovjan, Joanna S. Fowler, Gene Jack Wang, Ruben C. Gur, Robert Hitzemann, Nora D. Volkow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


The high prevalence of anger, impulsivity and violence in cocaine addiction implicates chronic cocaine use in the compromise of higher-order inhibitory control neurocognitive processes. We used the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) anger content scale as a personality measure of inhibitory control and examined its association with glucose metabolism in the lateral orbitofrontal gyrus (LOFG) at rest as measured by positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (PET 18FDG) in 17 recently abstinent cocaine-dependent subjects and 16 comparison subjects. Three additional variables-the MMPI-2 depression content scale, metabolism in the medial orbitofrontal gyrus (MOFG) and the anterior cingulate (AC) gyrus-were inspected. When level of education was statistically controlled for, the LOFG was significantly associated with anger within the cocaine group. No other region was associated with anger within the cocaine-dependent group, and the LOFG did not correlate with depression within any of the study groups. The present study confirms earlier reports in demonstrating a positive association between relative metabolism at rest in the LOFG and cognitive-behavioral and personality measures of inhibitory control in drug addiction: the higher the metabolism, the better the inhibitory control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalPsychiatry Research - Neuroimaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 30 2005


  • Anger
  • Depression
  • Drug abuse
  • MMPI-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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