Altered body composition and energy expenditure but normal glucose tolerance among humans with a long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder

Melanie B. Gillingham, Cary O. Harding, Dale A. Schoeller, Dietrich Matern, Jonathan Q. Purnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

The development of insulin resistance has been associated with impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), but the exact relationship between FAO capacity and glucose metabolism continues to be debated. To address this controversy, patients with long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and measurement of energy expenditure, body composition, and plasma metabolites. Compared with controls, patients with LCHAD deficiency had a trend toward higher total body fat and extramyocellular lipid deposition but similar levels of intramyocelluar and intrahepatic lipids. Resting energy expenditure was similar between the groups, but respiratory quotient was higher and total energy expenditure was lower in LCHAD-deficient patients compared with controls. High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were lower and plasma long-chain acyl-carnitines were higher among LCHAD-deficient patients. Fasting and post-OGTT levels of glucose, insulin, and ghrelin, along with estimates of insulin sensitivity, were the same between the groups. Despite decreased capacity for FAO, lower total energy expenditure and plasma HMW adiponectin, and increased plasma acylcarnitines, LCHAD-deficient patients exhibited normal glucose tolerance. These data suggest that inhibition of the FAO pathway in humans is not sufficient to induce insulin resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E1299-E1308
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume305
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 15 2013

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Keywords

  • Acylcarnitines
  • Long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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