Background: Multiple fellowship programs in North America prepare surgeons for a career in Hepato-Pancreatico-Biliary (HPB) surgery. Inconsistent operative experiences and disease process exposures across programs and pathways produces variability in training product and therefore, lack of clarity around what trained HPB surgeons are prepared to do in early practice. Thus, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of AHPBA fellowship training was conducted. Methods: This was a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study. Eleven AHPBA-Founding Members (FM) and 24 current or former Program Directors (PD) of programs eligible for AHPBA certificates were surveyed and interviewed. Grounded theory principles and thematic network analysis were used to analyze interview transcripts. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey data. Results: Three main themes were identified: (i) Concern for training rigor and consistency (ii) Desire to standardize curricula and broaden training requirements and, (iii) Need to validate both the value of training and job marketability via certification. Discussion: Based on the themes identified, the strengths of AHPBA-certified HPB programs include superior technical training and case volumes. Areas of improvement included elevating baseline competencies by increasing required case volume and breadth to ensure minimally invasive experience, operative autonomy, and multidisciplinary care coordination.
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