Age-related decline in rod phototransduction sensitivity in rhesus monkeys fed an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet

Brett G. Jeffrey, Martha Neuringer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    15 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    PURPOSE. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 fatty acid, is the major polyunsaturate in rod outer segments. The effect of long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on rod and cone phototransduction was investigated in the rhesus monkey. METHODS. From birth to ≅ 9 years rhesus monkeys were fed an n-3- deficient diet (n = 9) known to reduce retinal DHA by 80%. Monkeys in the control group (n = 12) received either 8% α-linolenic acid (ALA) or 0.6% DHA, both of which support normal retinal DHA levels. None of the diets contained carotenoids. Photoactivation kinetics were assessed from the rate of increase and a P3 model fit of the ERG a-wave. Maximal cone amplitude and sensitivity were measured from the cone a-wave at 4 ms. The rod photoresponse and rod recovery were derived by using a paired flash method. RESULTS. Rod sensitivity was reduced by 40% in the n-3- deficient monkeys at 9 but not 4.5 years. The onset of the rising phase of the photoresponse was significantly delayed (P <0.004) at 9 years. Rod recovery was delayed by 20% in n-3- deficient monkeys at both ages, but only for bright saturating flashes. Cone phototransduction was not altered by n-3 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS. Long-term dietary n-3 deficiency in the rhesus monkey was associated with two changes in retinal function. First, there was a delay in rod recovery that has remained relatively constant throughout life. Second, there was an agedependent loss in rod phototransduction sensitivity; the lack of dietary carotenoids may have contributed to this decline.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)4360-4367
    Number of pages8
    JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
    Volume50
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2009

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    Light Signal Transduction
    Docosahexaenoic Acids
    Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    Macaca mulatta
    Diet
    Haplorhini
    Carotenoids
    Rod Cell Outer Segment
    Vertebrate Photoreceptor Cells
    alpha-Linolenic Acid
    Parturition
    Control Groups

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ophthalmology
    • Sensory Systems
    • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
    • Medicine(all)

    Cite this

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    title = "Age-related decline in rod phototransduction sensitivity in rhesus monkeys fed an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet",
    abstract = "PURPOSE. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 fatty acid, is the major polyunsaturate in rod outer segments. The effect of long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on rod and cone phototransduction was investigated in the rhesus monkey. METHODS. From birth to ≅ 9 years rhesus monkeys were fed an n-3- deficient diet (n = 9) known to reduce retinal DHA by 80{\%}. Monkeys in the control group (n = 12) received either 8{\%} α-linolenic acid (ALA) or 0.6{\%} DHA, both of which support normal retinal DHA levels. None of the diets contained carotenoids. Photoactivation kinetics were assessed from the rate of increase and a P3 model fit of the ERG a-wave. Maximal cone amplitude and sensitivity were measured from the cone a-wave at 4 ms. The rod photoresponse and rod recovery were derived by using a paired flash method. RESULTS. Rod sensitivity was reduced by 40{\%} in the n-3- deficient monkeys at 9 but not 4.5 years. The onset of the rising phase of the photoresponse was significantly delayed (P <0.004) at 9 years. Rod recovery was delayed by 20{\%} in n-3- deficient monkeys at both ages, but only for bright saturating flashes. Cone phototransduction was not altered by n-3 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS. Long-term dietary n-3 deficiency in the rhesus monkey was associated with two changes in retinal function. First, there was a delay in rod recovery that has remained relatively constant throughout life. Second, there was an agedependent loss in rod phototransduction sensitivity; the lack of dietary carotenoids may have contributed to this decline.",
    author = "Jeffrey, {Brett G.} and Martha Neuringer",
    year = "2009",
    doi = "10.1167/iovs.09-3640",
    language = "English (US)",
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    pages = "4360--4367",
    journal = "Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Age-related decline in rod phototransduction sensitivity in rhesus monkeys fed an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet

    AU - Jeffrey, Brett G.

    AU - Neuringer, Martha

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - PURPOSE. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 fatty acid, is the major polyunsaturate in rod outer segments. The effect of long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on rod and cone phototransduction was investigated in the rhesus monkey. METHODS. From birth to ≅ 9 years rhesus monkeys were fed an n-3- deficient diet (n = 9) known to reduce retinal DHA by 80%. Monkeys in the control group (n = 12) received either 8% α-linolenic acid (ALA) or 0.6% DHA, both of which support normal retinal DHA levels. None of the diets contained carotenoids. Photoactivation kinetics were assessed from the rate of increase and a P3 model fit of the ERG a-wave. Maximal cone amplitude and sensitivity were measured from the cone a-wave at 4 ms. The rod photoresponse and rod recovery were derived by using a paired flash method. RESULTS. Rod sensitivity was reduced by 40% in the n-3- deficient monkeys at 9 but not 4.5 years. The onset of the rising phase of the photoresponse was significantly delayed (P <0.004) at 9 years. Rod recovery was delayed by 20% in n-3- deficient monkeys at both ages, but only for bright saturating flashes. Cone phototransduction was not altered by n-3 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS. Long-term dietary n-3 deficiency in the rhesus monkey was associated with two changes in retinal function. First, there was a delay in rod recovery that has remained relatively constant throughout life. Second, there was an agedependent loss in rod phototransduction sensitivity; the lack of dietary carotenoids may have contributed to this decline.

    AB - PURPOSE. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 fatty acid, is the major polyunsaturate in rod outer segments. The effect of long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on rod and cone phototransduction was investigated in the rhesus monkey. METHODS. From birth to ≅ 9 years rhesus monkeys were fed an n-3- deficient diet (n = 9) known to reduce retinal DHA by 80%. Monkeys in the control group (n = 12) received either 8% α-linolenic acid (ALA) or 0.6% DHA, both of which support normal retinal DHA levels. None of the diets contained carotenoids. Photoactivation kinetics were assessed from the rate of increase and a P3 model fit of the ERG a-wave. Maximal cone amplitude and sensitivity were measured from the cone a-wave at 4 ms. The rod photoresponse and rod recovery were derived by using a paired flash method. RESULTS. Rod sensitivity was reduced by 40% in the n-3- deficient monkeys at 9 but not 4.5 years. The onset of the rising phase of the photoresponse was significantly delayed (P <0.004) at 9 years. Rod recovery was delayed by 20% in n-3- deficient monkeys at both ages, but only for bright saturating flashes. Cone phototransduction was not altered by n-3 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS. Long-term dietary n-3 deficiency in the rhesus monkey was associated with two changes in retinal function. First, there was a delay in rod recovery that has remained relatively constant throughout life. Second, there was an agedependent loss in rod phototransduction sensitivity; the lack of dietary carotenoids may have contributed to this decline.

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    JO - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

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    SN - 0146-0404

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