Adults Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-United States, March-June and October-December 2020: Implications for the Potential Effects of COVID-19 Tier-1 Vaccination on Future Hospitalizations and Outcomes

Samira Sami, Mark W. Tenforde, H. Keipp Talbot, Christopher J. Lindsell, Jay S. Steingrub, Nathan I. Shapiro, Adit A. Ginde, David J. Douin, Matthew E. Prekker, Heidi L. Erickson, Samuel M. Brown, Ithan D. Peltan, Michelle N. Gong, Akram Khan, Matthew C. Exline, D. Clark Files, Kevin W. Gibbs, Todd W. Rice, Jonathan D. Casey, Carlos G. GrijalvaWilliam B. Stubblefield, Kelsey N. Womack, David N. Hager, Nida Qadir, Steven Y. Chang, Daniel J. Henning, Jennifer G. Wilson, Wesley H. Self, Manish M. Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Because of the increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) initially prioritized COVID-19 vaccination for persons in long-term care facilities (LTCF), persons aged ≥65 years, and persons aged 16-64 years with high-risk medical conditions when there is limited vaccine supply. We compared characteristics and severe outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the United States between early and later in the pandemic categorized by groups at higher risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: Observational study of sampled patients aged ≥18 years who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and admitted to one of 14 academic hospitals in the United States during March-June and October-December 2020. Demographic and clinical information were gathered from electronic health record data. RESULTS: Among 647 patients, 91% met ≥1 of the following risk factors for severe COVID-19 [91% March-June (n = 434); 90% October-December (n = 213)]; 19% were LTCF residents, 45% were aged ≥65-years, and 84% had ≥1 high-risk condition. The proportion of patients who resided in a LTCF declined significantly (25% vs 6%) from early to later pandemic periods. Compared with patients at lower risk for severe COVID-19, in-hospital mortality was higher among patients at high risk for severe COVID-19 (20% vs 7%); these differences were consistently observed between March-June and October-December. CONCLUSIONS: Most adults hospitalized with COVID-19 were those recommended to be prioritized for vaccination based on risk for developing severe COVID-19. These findings highlight the continued urgency to vaccinate patients at high risk for severe COVID-19 and monitor vaccination impact on hospitalizations and outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S32-S37
JournalClinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Volume73
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 15 2021

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • hospitalization
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • United States
  • vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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