Incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a recessive, non-progressive eye disorder characterized by abnormal electroretinogram and psychophysical testing and can include impaired night vision, decreased visual acuity, myopia, nystagmus, and strabismus. Including the 20 families previously reported (Bech-Hansen et al. 1998b), we have now analyzed patients from a total of 36 families with incomplete CSNB and identified 20 different mutations in the calcium channel gene CACNA1F. Three of the mutations account for incomplete CSNB in two or more families, and a founder effect is clearly demonstrable for one of these mutations. Of the 20 mutations identified, 14 (70%) are predicted to cause premature protein truncation and six (30%) to cause amino acid substitutions or deletions at conserved positions in the α1F protein. In characterizing transcripts of CACNA1F we have identified several splice variants and defined a prototypical sequence based on the location of mutations in splice variants and comparison with the mouse orthologue, Canca1f.
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