Background: We describe a 4-generation Dutch pedigree with a unique dominantly inherited clinical phenotype of a combined progressive chorea and cervical dystonia carrying a novel heterozygous dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) variant. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the genetic cause of the disease and to further investigate the functional consequences of the genetic variant. Methods: After detailed clinical and neurological examination, whole-exome sequencing was performed. Because a novel variant in the DRD2 gene was found as the likely causative gene defect in our pedigree, we sequenced the DRD2 gene in a cohort of 121 Huntington-like cases with unknown genetic cause (Germany). Moreover, functional characterization of the DRD2 variant included arrestin recruitment, G protein activation, and G protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase determined in a cell model, and G protein-regulated inward-rectifying potassium channels measured in midbrain slices of mice. Result: We identified a novel heterozygous variant c.634A > T, p.Ile212Phe in exon 5 of DRD2 that cosegregated with the clinical phenotype. Screening of the German cohort did not reveal additional putative disease-causing variants. We demonstrated that the D2S/L-I212F receptor exhibited increased agonist potency and constitutive activation of G proteins in human embryonic kidney 239 cells as well as significantly reduced arrestin3 recruitment. We further showed that the D2S-I212F receptor exhibited aberrant receptor function in mouse midbrain slices. Conclusions: Our results support an association between the novel p.Ile212Phe variant in DRD2, its modified D2 receptor activity, and the hyperkinetic movement disorder reported in the 4-generation pedigree.
- dopamine D2 receptor
- hyperkinetic movement disorder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology