A comparison of laser-assisted drug delivery at two output energies for enhancing the delivery of topically applied LMX-4® cream prior to venipuncture

Jeffrey L. Koh, Dale Harrison, Veronica Swanson, Daniel C. Norvell, Darren C. Coomber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Laser-assisted drug delivery (LAD) has the potential for facilitating topical anesthesia with reduced onset time. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study we compared the efficacy and adverse event profile of LAD for topical anesthesia before venipuncture using two output energies (2.0 and 3.5 J/cm). RESULTS: Mean Visual Analog Scale pain scores were not statistically different (P = 0.57) between the low-energy (mean = 6.7) and high-energy (mean = 8.1) lasers. CONCLUSIONS: LAD at an energy of 2.0 J/cm (570 mJ) is as effective, with similar adverse events, as an energy of 3.5 J/cm (1000 mJ) in facilitating topical anesthesia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)847-849
Number of pages3
JournalAnesthesia and analgesia
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2007


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this