Vitamin C supplementation for pregnant smoking women and pulmonary function in their newborn infants: A randomized clinical trial

Cynthia (Cindy) McEvoy, Diane Schilling, Nakia Clay, Keith Jackson, Mitzi D. Go, Patricia Spitale, Carol Bunten, Maria Leiva, David Gonzales, Julie Hollister-Smith, Manuel Durand, Balz Frei, A (Sonia) Buist, Dawn Peters, Cynthia Morris, Eliot Spindel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

92 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development, with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function and increased asthma risk. In a primate model, vitamin C blocked some of the in-utero effects of nicotine on lung development and offspring pulmonary function. OBJECTIVE: To determine if newborns of pregnant smokers randomized to receive daily vitamin C would have improved results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and decreased wheezing compared with those randomized to placebo. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, double-blind trial conducted in 3 sites in the Pacific Northwest between March 2007 and January 2011. One hundred fifty-nine newborns of randomized pregnant smokers (76 vitamin C treated and 83 placebo treated) and 76 newborns of pregnant nonsmokers were studied with newborn PFTs. Follow-up assessment including wheezing was assessed through age 1 year, and PFTs were performed at age 1 year. INTERVENTIONS: Pregnant women were randomized to receive vitamin C (500 mg/d) (n = 89) or placebo (n = 90). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomewas measurement of newborn pulmonary function (ratio of the time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time [TPTEF:TE] and passive respiratory compliance per kilogram [Crs/kg]) within 72 hours of age. Secondary outcomes included incidence of wheezing through age 1 year and PFT results at age 1 year. A subgroup of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers had genotyping performed. RESULTS: Newborns of women randomized to vitamin C (n = 76), compared with those randomized to placebo (n = 83), had improved pulmonary function as measured by TPTEF:TE (0.383 vs 0.345 [adjusted 95% CI for difference, 0.011-0.062]; P = .006) and Crs/kg (1.32 vs 1.20 mL/cm H 2O/kg [95% CI, 0.02-0.20]; P = .01). Offspring of women randomized to vitamin C had significantly decreased wheezing through age 1 year (15/70 [21%] vs 31/77 [40%]; relative risk, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.33-0.95]; P = .03). There were no significant differences in the 1-year PFT results between the vitamin C and placebo groups. The effect of maternal smoking on newborn lung function was associated with maternal genotype for the α5 nicotinic receptor (rs16969968) (P <.001 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Supplemental vitamin C taken by pregnant smokers improved newborn PFT results and decreased wheezing through 1 year in the offspring. Vitamin C in pregnant smokers may be an inexpensive and simple approach to decrease the effects of smoking in pregnancy on newborn pulmonary function and respiratory morbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00632476

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2074-2082
Number of pages9
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume311
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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Ascorbic Acid
Pregnant Women
Randomized Controlled Trials
Smoking
Respiratory Function Tests
Newborn Infant
Lung
Respiratory Sounds
Placebos
Mothers
Northwestern United States
Pregnancy
Nicotinic Receptors
Nicotine
Primates
Compliance
Asthma
Genotype
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Morbidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Vitamin C supplementation for pregnant smoking women and pulmonary function in their newborn infants : A randomized clinical trial. / McEvoy, Cynthia (Cindy); Schilling, Diane; Clay, Nakia; Jackson, Keith; Go, Mitzi D.; Spitale, Patricia; Bunten, Carol; Leiva, Maria; Gonzales, David; Hollister-Smith, Julie; Durand, Manuel; Frei, Balz; Buist, A (Sonia); Peters, Dawn; Morris, Cynthia; Spindel, Eliot.

In: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 311, No. 20, 2014, p. 2074-2082.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McEvoy, Cynthia (Cindy) ; Schilling, Diane ; Clay, Nakia ; Jackson, Keith ; Go, Mitzi D. ; Spitale, Patricia ; Bunten, Carol ; Leiva, Maria ; Gonzales, David ; Hollister-Smith, Julie ; Durand, Manuel ; Frei, Balz ; Buist, A (Sonia) ; Peters, Dawn ; Morris, Cynthia ; Spindel, Eliot. / Vitamin C supplementation for pregnant smoking women and pulmonary function in their newborn infants : A randomized clinical trial. In: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 2014 ; Vol. 311, No. 20. pp. 2074-2082.
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abstract = "IMPORTANCE: Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development, with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function and increased asthma risk. In a primate model, vitamin C blocked some of the in-utero effects of nicotine on lung development and offspring pulmonary function. OBJECTIVE: To determine if newborns of pregnant smokers randomized to receive daily vitamin C would have improved results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and decreased wheezing compared with those randomized to placebo. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, double-blind trial conducted in 3 sites in the Pacific Northwest between March 2007 and January 2011. One hundred fifty-nine newborns of randomized pregnant smokers (76 vitamin C treated and 83 placebo treated) and 76 newborns of pregnant nonsmokers were studied with newborn PFTs. Follow-up assessment including wheezing was assessed through age 1 year, and PFTs were performed at age 1 year. INTERVENTIONS: Pregnant women were randomized to receive vitamin C (500 mg/d) (n = 89) or placebo (n = 90). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomewas measurement of newborn pulmonary function (ratio of the time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time [TPTEF:TE] and passive respiratory compliance per kilogram [Crs/kg]) within 72 hours of age. Secondary outcomes included incidence of wheezing through age 1 year and PFT results at age 1 year. A subgroup of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers had genotyping performed. RESULTS: Newborns of women randomized to vitamin C (n = 76), compared with those randomized to placebo (n = 83), had improved pulmonary function as measured by TPTEF:TE (0.383 vs 0.345 [adjusted 95{\%} CI for difference, 0.011-0.062]; P = .006) and Crs/kg (1.32 vs 1.20 mL/cm H 2O/kg [95{\%} CI, 0.02-0.20]; P = .01). Offspring of women randomized to vitamin C had significantly decreased wheezing through age 1 year (15/70 [21{\%}] vs 31/77 [40{\%}]; relative risk, 0.56 [95{\%} CI, 0.33-0.95]; P = .03). There were no significant differences in the 1-year PFT results between the vitamin C and placebo groups. The effect of maternal smoking on newborn lung function was associated with maternal genotype for the α5 nicotinic receptor (rs16969968) (P <.001 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Supplemental vitamin C taken by pregnant smokers improved newborn PFT results and decreased wheezing through 1 year in the offspring. Vitamin C in pregnant smokers may be an inexpensive and simple approach to decrease the effects of smoking in pregnancy on newborn pulmonary function and respiratory morbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00632476",
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T1 - Vitamin C supplementation for pregnant smoking women and pulmonary function in their newborn infants

T2 - A randomized clinical trial

AU - McEvoy, Cynthia (Cindy)

AU - Schilling, Diane

AU - Clay, Nakia

AU - Jackson, Keith

AU - Go, Mitzi D.

AU - Spitale, Patricia

AU - Bunten, Carol

AU - Leiva, Maria

AU - Gonzales, David

AU - Hollister-Smith, Julie

AU - Durand, Manuel

AU - Frei, Balz

AU - Buist, A (Sonia)

AU - Peters, Dawn

AU - Morris, Cynthia

AU - Spindel, Eliot

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - IMPORTANCE: Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development, with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function and increased asthma risk. In a primate model, vitamin C blocked some of the in-utero effects of nicotine on lung development and offspring pulmonary function. OBJECTIVE: To determine if newborns of pregnant smokers randomized to receive daily vitamin C would have improved results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and decreased wheezing compared with those randomized to placebo. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, double-blind trial conducted in 3 sites in the Pacific Northwest between March 2007 and January 2011. One hundred fifty-nine newborns of randomized pregnant smokers (76 vitamin C treated and 83 placebo treated) and 76 newborns of pregnant nonsmokers were studied with newborn PFTs. Follow-up assessment including wheezing was assessed through age 1 year, and PFTs were performed at age 1 year. INTERVENTIONS: Pregnant women were randomized to receive vitamin C (500 mg/d) (n = 89) or placebo (n = 90). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomewas measurement of newborn pulmonary function (ratio of the time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time [TPTEF:TE] and passive respiratory compliance per kilogram [Crs/kg]) within 72 hours of age. Secondary outcomes included incidence of wheezing through age 1 year and PFT results at age 1 year. A subgroup of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers had genotyping performed. RESULTS: Newborns of women randomized to vitamin C (n = 76), compared with those randomized to placebo (n = 83), had improved pulmonary function as measured by TPTEF:TE (0.383 vs 0.345 [adjusted 95% CI for difference, 0.011-0.062]; P = .006) and Crs/kg (1.32 vs 1.20 mL/cm H 2O/kg [95% CI, 0.02-0.20]; P = .01). Offspring of women randomized to vitamin C had significantly decreased wheezing through age 1 year (15/70 [21%] vs 31/77 [40%]; relative risk, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.33-0.95]; P = .03). There were no significant differences in the 1-year PFT results between the vitamin C and placebo groups. The effect of maternal smoking on newborn lung function was associated with maternal genotype for the α5 nicotinic receptor (rs16969968) (P <.001 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Supplemental vitamin C taken by pregnant smokers improved newborn PFT results and decreased wheezing through 1 year in the offspring. Vitamin C in pregnant smokers may be an inexpensive and simple approach to decrease the effects of smoking in pregnancy on newborn pulmonary function and respiratory morbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00632476

AB - IMPORTANCE: Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development, with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function and increased asthma risk. In a primate model, vitamin C blocked some of the in-utero effects of nicotine on lung development and offspring pulmonary function. OBJECTIVE: To determine if newborns of pregnant smokers randomized to receive daily vitamin C would have improved results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and decreased wheezing compared with those randomized to placebo. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, double-blind trial conducted in 3 sites in the Pacific Northwest between March 2007 and January 2011. One hundred fifty-nine newborns of randomized pregnant smokers (76 vitamin C treated and 83 placebo treated) and 76 newborns of pregnant nonsmokers were studied with newborn PFTs. Follow-up assessment including wheezing was assessed through age 1 year, and PFTs were performed at age 1 year. INTERVENTIONS: Pregnant women were randomized to receive vitamin C (500 mg/d) (n = 89) or placebo (n = 90). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomewas measurement of newborn pulmonary function (ratio of the time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time [TPTEF:TE] and passive respiratory compliance per kilogram [Crs/kg]) within 72 hours of age. Secondary outcomes included incidence of wheezing through age 1 year and PFT results at age 1 year. A subgroup of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers had genotyping performed. RESULTS: Newborns of women randomized to vitamin C (n = 76), compared with those randomized to placebo (n = 83), had improved pulmonary function as measured by TPTEF:TE (0.383 vs 0.345 [adjusted 95% CI for difference, 0.011-0.062]; P = .006) and Crs/kg (1.32 vs 1.20 mL/cm H 2O/kg [95% CI, 0.02-0.20]; P = .01). Offspring of women randomized to vitamin C had significantly decreased wheezing through age 1 year (15/70 [21%] vs 31/77 [40%]; relative risk, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.33-0.95]; P = .03). There were no significant differences in the 1-year PFT results between the vitamin C and placebo groups. The effect of maternal smoking on newborn lung function was associated with maternal genotype for the α5 nicotinic receptor (rs16969968) (P <.001 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Supplemental vitamin C taken by pregnant smokers improved newborn PFT results and decreased wheezing through 1 year in the offspring. Vitamin C in pregnant smokers may be an inexpensive and simple approach to decrease the effects of smoking in pregnancy on newborn pulmonary function and respiratory morbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00632476

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