Aims In the IMMEDIATE Trial, intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) was started as early as possible for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome by ambulance paramedics in communities. In the IMMEDIATE Biological Mechanism Cohort substudy, reported here, we investigated potential modes of GIK action on specific circulating metabolic components. Specific attention was given to suppression of circulating oxygen-wasting free fatty acids (FFAs) that had been posed as part of the early GIK action related to averting cardiac arrest. Methods We analyzed the changes in plasma levels of FFA, glucose, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Results With GIK, there was rapid suppression of FFA levels with estimated levels for GIK and placebo groups after 2 hours of treatment of 480 and 781 μmol/L (P <.0001), even while patterns of FFA saturation remained unchanged. There were no significant changes in the HOMA index in the GIK or placebo groups (HOMA index: placebo 10.93, GIK 12.99; P =.07), suggesting that GIK infusions were not countered by insulin resistance. Also, neither placebo nor GIK altered endogenous insulin secretion as reflected by unchanging C-peptide levels. Conclusion These mechanistic observations support the potential role of FFA suppression in very early cardioprotection by GIK. They also suggest that the IMMEDIATE Trial GIK formula is balanced with respect to its insulin and glucose composition, as it induced no endogenous insulin secretion.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine