The retroviral restriction factor TRIMCyp, derived from the TRIM5 gene, blocks replication at a postentry step. TRIMCyp has so far been found in four species of Asian macaques, Macaca fascicularis, M. mulatta, M. nemestrina, and M. leonina. M. fascicularis is commonly used as a model for AIDS research, but TRIMCyp has not been analyzed in detail in this species. We analyzed the prevalence of TRIMCyp in samples from Indonesia, Indochina, the Philippines, and Mauritius. We found that TRIMCyp is present at a higher frequency in Indonesian than in Indochinese M. fascicularis macaques and is also present in samples from the Philippines. TRIMCyp is absent in Mauritian M. fascicularis macaques. We then analyzed the restriction specificity of TRIMCyp derived from three animals of Indonesian origin. One allele, like the prototypic TRIMCyp alleles described for M. mulatta and M. nemestrina, restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) but not HIV-1. The others restrict HIV-1 and FIV but not HIV-2. Mutagenesis studies confirmed that polymorphisms at amino acid residues 369 and 446 in TRIMCyp (or residues 66 and 143 in the cyclophilin A [CypA] domain) confer restriction specificity. Additionally, we identified a polymorphism in the coiled-coil domain that appears to affect TRIMCyp expression or stability. Taken together, these data show that M. fascicularis has the most diverse array of TRIM5 restriction factors described for any primate species to date. These findings are relevant to our understanding of the evolution of retroviral restriction factors and the use of M. fascicularis models in AIDS research.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science